Flashcards in Vertebral Column Deck (36):
12 total each of which articulates with a pair of ribs
5 large vertebrae for support of the bodies weight
5 fused vertebrae for stability in the transfer of weight from the trunk to the lower limbs
4 usual two though 4 are fused. The coccyx lacks vertebral arches and has no vertebral canal.
Curvature of the vertebral colum
Primary curvature is Kyphosis
Secondary curvature is Lardosis
Cervical Lardosis is considered Secondary
Thoracic Kyphosisis considered Primary
Lumbar Lardosis is considered Secondary
Sacrum Kyphosis is considered Primary
Hollow back or Sway Back
Abnormal Lateral Curvature
Cervical- Contains Transverse Foramina, The spinous process is bifid and points directly posterior. Lastly, it is the region with the greatest range of movement.
Thoracic- The Spinous process is long and sharp and projects inferiorly (down). The transverse processes contain facets for the ribs. Except T11 and T12
Lumbar- Body is massive and kidney shaped. The spinous process is short and begins to project directly posteriorly again. The superior facets are directed posteriormedially and inferior facets are directed anterolaterally.
Extra rib articualting with C7
Extra rib articulating with L1
L5 partially incorporated into the sacrum
S1 is partially separated from the rest of the sacrum
What are the joints of the Vertebral Bodies
SECONDARY CARTILAGINOUS joints called
Intervertebral disks i.e IV disks
What does an IV disk consist of?
1. Annulus fibrosis- outer fibrous part
2. Nucleus pulposus- gelatinous central mass
Is when the Nucleus Pulposus protudes into or through the Annulus Firbrosis
What are the joints of the vertebral arches?
Z joints (Zygapophysial) between the superior and inferior articular process(above and below the spinous process) It is PLANE SYNOVIAL. It allows some gliding and sliding movements.
Connects adjacent Vertebral Laminae. When doing a
Ligamentum Nuchae (nuchal ligament)
Strong triangular ligament at the back of the neck. It is the direct continuation of the the Supraspinous ligament( the ligament that connects the spinous tips.
Extends from the foramen magnum down to L1 or L2
L3 in children
Spinal Cord Grey and White Matter
The gray matter is the H-shaped appearance of the spinal cord it is rich in nerve cell bodies.
The white matter is rich in nerve cell processes which form large bundles and tracts.
Spinal Cord Enlargements
Enlargements are associated with the origin of spinal nerves that innervate the upper and lower limb
1. Cervical Enlargement (C5-T1)
2. Lumbosacral Enlargment (L1-S3)
Artery Supply to the spine
One Anterior and Two Posterior
The Posterior spinal arteries are branches of theVertebral Artery Superiorly
The anterior and posterior spinal arteries receive blood from the RADICULAR ARTERIES ( The radicular ateries are derivied from spinal branches of arteries in the vicintiy)
Into the Internal Vertebral Plexus which lies in the extradural space i.e epidural space of the vertebral column
Extend all they way to S2
What space is the CSF housed?
In the subarachnoid space between the pia mater and arachnoid mater.
Delicate ligament which extends from the codus medullaris
Ligament formed by the pia mater that eventually attatches to the dura mater
How many vertebrae do we have?
How many spinal nerves do we have? How do they emerge?
C1-C7 emerge above there vertebrae but..... becuase of the random C8 which will emerge above T1 leaving no room for T1 to emerge there, the rest will emerge below.
Where does a Lumbar puncture take place
Between L3 and L4
Spinal nerve connections to the Spinal Cord
Each spinal nerve is connected to the spinal cord by a posterior and anterior ROOT.
Distinguishing Root vs Ramus
The root will either be motor or sensory depending on where it is originating. If it originates Dorsal side it will be Sensory. If it originates on the Ventral side it will be Motor. These two roots come together to form a mixed root that is both motor and sensory. Then it almost immediately divides to form Rami that are combined motor and sensory.
Dorsal Rami are smaller and convey information to and from the skin and intrinsic back skeletal muscles.
Ventral Rami are much larger and convey information to and from the skin and skeletal muscles of the neck limbs and trunk.