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Anatomy Exam 1 > Vertebral Column > Flashcards

Flashcards in Vertebral Column Deck (36):
1

Cervical Vetebrae

7

2

Thorcic Vertebrae

12 total each of which articulates with a pair of ribs

3

Lumbar

5 large vertebrae for support of the bodies weight

4

Sacral

5 fused vertebrae for stability in the transfer of weight from the trunk to the lower limbs

5

Coccyx

4 usual two though 4 are fused. The coccyx lacks vertebral arches and has no vertebral canal.

6

Curvature of the vertebral colum

Primary curvature is Kyphosis
Secondary curvature is Lardosis

Therefor:
Cervical Lardosis is considered Secondary
Thoracic Kyphosisis considered Primary
Lumbar Lardosis is considered Secondary
Sacrum Kyphosis is considered Primary

7

Excessive Kyphosis

Hunchback

8

Excessive Lardosis

Hollow back or Sway Back

9

Scoliosis

Abnormal Lateral Curvature

10

Vertebrae Characteristics

Cervical- Contains Transverse Foramina, The spinous process is bifid and points directly posterior. Lastly, it is the region with the greatest range of movement.

Thoracic- The Spinous process is long and sharp and projects inferiorly (down). The transverse processes contain facets for the ribs. Except T11 and T12

Lumbar- Body is massive and kidney shaped. The spinous process is short and begins to project directly posteriorly again. The superior facets are directed posteriormedially and inferior facets are directed anterolaterally.

11

Cervical Rib

Extra rib articualting with C7

12

Lumbar Rib

Extra rib articulating with L1

13

Sacralization

L5 partially incorporated into the sacrum

14

Lumbarization

S1 is partially separated from the rest of the sacrum

15

What are the joints of the Vertebral Bodies

SECONDARY CARTILAGINOUS joints called
Intervertebral disks i.e IV disks

16

What does an IV disk consist of?

1. Annulus fibrosis- outer fibrous part
2. Nucleus pulposus- gelatinous central mass

17

Herniated Disk

Is when the Nucleus Pulposus protudes into or through the Annulus Firbrosis

18

What are the joints of the vertebral arches?

Z joints (Zygapophysial) between the superior and inferior articular process(above and below the spinous process) It is PLANE SYNOVIAL. It allows some gliding and sliding movements.

19

Ligamientum Flavum

Connects adjacent Vertebral Laminae. When doing a

20

Ligamentum Nuchae (nuchal ligament)

Strong triangular ligament at the back of the neck. It is the direct continuation of the the Supraspinous ligament( the ligament that connects the spinous tips.

21

Cuada equina

horse tail

22

Spinal Cord

Extends from the foramen magnum down to L1 or L2
L3 in children

23

Spinal Cord Grey and White Matter

The gray matter is the H-shaped appearance of the spinal cord it is rich in nerve cell bodies.

The white matter is rich in nerve cell processes which form large bundles and tracts.

24

Spinal Cord Enlargements

Enlargements are associated with the origin of spinal nerves that innervate the upper and lower limb
1. Cervical Enlargement (C5-T1)
2. Lumbosacral Enlargment (L1-S3)

25

Artery Supply to the spine

One Anterior and Two Posterior

The Posterior spinal arteries are branches of theVertebral Artery Superiorly

The anterior and posterior spinal arteries receive blood from the RADICULAR ARTERIES ( The radicular ateries are derivied from spinal branches of arteries in the vicintiy)

26

Venous drainage

Into the Internal Vertebral Plexus which lies in the extradural space i.e epidural space of the vertebral column

27

Spinal Meninges

Extend all they way to S2

28

What space is the CSF housed?

In the subarachnoid space between the pia mater and arachnoid mater.

29

Pia Mater

Filum Terminale
Denticulate Ligament

30

Filum Terminale

Delicate ligament which extends from the codus medullaris

31

Denticulate Ligament

Ligament formed by the pia mater that eventually attatches to the dura mater

32

How many vertebrae do we have?

33

33

How many spinal nerves do we have? How do they emerge?

31 Ahhhh!!!

8 Cervical
12 Thoracic
5 Lumbar
5 Sacral
1 Cocyx

C1-C7 emerge above there vertebrae but..... becuase of the random C8 which will emerge above T1 leaving no room for T1 to emerge there, the rest will emerge below.

34

Where does a Lumbar puncture take place

Between L3 and L4

35

Spinal nerve connections to the Spinal Cord

Each spinal nerve is connected to the spinal cord by a posterior and anterior ROOT.

Distinguishing Root vs Ramus

The root will either be motor or sensory depending on where it is originating. If it originates Dorsal side it will be Sensory. If it originates on the Ventral side it will be Motor. These two roots come together to form a mixed root that is both motor and sensory. Then it almost immediately divides to form Rami that are combined motor and sensory.

Dorsal Rami are smaller and convey information to and from the skin and intrinsic back skeletal muscles.
Ventral Rami are much larger and convey information to and from the skin and skeletal muscles of the neck limbs and trunk.

36

Afferent vs Efferent

Efferent- Exit = Motor = Me