Bacterial Skin Infections - Yu Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bacterial Skin Infections - Yu Deck (115):
1

impetigo ? who usually gets this

superficial skin infections- epidermis
children

2

Folliculitis

pyogenic infection in hair follicle - dermis

3

Furuncles (boils)

extension of folliculitis - dermis

4

Carbuncles

infection extends to the deeper subcutaneous tissue with single inflammatory response ( chills and fever due to systemic spread)
-subcutaneous

5

what are 3 categories of skin infections

spreading infections
abscess formation
necrotizing infections

6

what are spreading infections called in the epidermis and dermal lymphatics and subcutaneous fat layer

epidermis: impetigo
dermal lymphatics: erysipelas
subcutaneous fat layer: cellulitis

7

name three types of abscess formation

folliculitis
boils ( furuncles)
carbuncles

8

necrotizing infections includes what 2 things

fasciits
gas gangrene

9

macules

flat, non-palpable lesions

10

papules

palpable lesions

11

vescicles

palpable, fluid-filled lesions

12

pustules

palpable and contain pus, most neutrophils with serous fluids within or beneath epidermis

13

what are 3 epidermal inflammatory reactions

vesicle
pustule
bulla

14

vesicle

fluid accumulation

15

bulla

collection of serous fluid and have small numbers of inflammatory cells

16

erysipelas occurs where in the skin

dermis

17

what Direct entry into skin bacteria causes impetigo

Streptococcus pyogenes
Staph aureus

18

what direct entry into skin bacteria causes erysipelas

Step. Pryogenes

19

what direct entry into skin bacteria causes folliculits, boils ( furuncles), carbuncles

Staph. aureus

20

what direct entry into skin bacteria causes necrotizing fasciitis

anaerobes
microaerophiles
-usually mixed infections

21

what direct entry into skin bacteria causes myonecrosis gangrene

clostridium perfringens

22

what organism causes enteric fever and what are the skin manifestations

Salmonella typhi
Salmonella paratyphi
- "rose spots" containing bacteria

23

what organism causes septicemia and what are the skin manifestations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- ecthyma gangrenosum

24

what organism causes Scarlet fever and what are the skin manifestations

Streptococcus pyogenes
- Erythematous rash ( toxin)

25

what organism causes toxic shock syndrome and what are the skin manifestations

Staphlyococcus aureus
- rash and desquamation ( toxin)

26

what exogenous bacteria causes folliculitis

Staphylococci
Pseudomonas species

27

what exogenous bacteria causes carbuncles, furuncles

Staphylococci

28

what exogenous bacteria causes impetigo

Streptococci
Staphylococci

29

what exogenous bacteria causes erysipelas

streptococci

30

what exogenous bacteria causes cellulitis

streptococci
Staphylococci
haemophilus
influenza (unimmunized children)

31

what exogenous bacteria causes synergistic cellulitis

streptococci
enteric bacteria
anaerobes

32

what exogenous bacteria causes gas gangrene

clostridia

33

what exogenous bacteria causes necrotizing fasciitis

streptococci
enteric bactera
anaerobes

34

Staph aureus is what stain bacteria

gram positivve

35

what is Staph aureus resistant to

non-spore formers to adverse condition

36

is staph aureus motile

non-motile

37

does Staph aureus need oxygen for growth

facultatively anaerobic

38

Staph aureus test for catalase and coagulase

catalase: postive
coagulase: positive

39

Staph aureus can grow in what type of media

10% NaCl

40

staph aureus can cause what 4 things

abscesses
systemic diseases
food-poisoning
toxic shock syndrome

41

name 4 virulence factors for Staph aureus

staphylococcal toxins
exfoliative toxins
enterotoxins
toxic shock syndrome toxins

42

what type of bacteria is streptococcus? how does it grow on plate

gram postive
arranged in chains

43

how does streptococcus avoid phagocytosis

capsule
M protiens
C5a
peptidase

44

is streptococcus motile

non-motile

45

does streptococcus require oxygen

facultative anaerobic

46

test for catalase streptococcus

negative

47

what are the nutritional requirement for streptococcus

blood or serum enriched media for isolation

48

what virulence factor for streptococcus lyse RBC

streptolysin O and S

49

skin abscesses, furuncles, carbuncles are all related to what

hair follicle

50

for skin abscesses, furuncles, carbuncles it is a collection of what

pus within dermis and deeper skin tissue

51

up to 50% of cases of skin abscesses, furuncles, carbuncles are caused by what

Staph aureus

52

treatment for skin abscesses, furuncles, carbuncles

warm compresses to help drainage for small furuncles

53

Impetigo (pyoderma, impetigo contagiosa) is commonly seen in

children

54

impetigo (pyoderma, impetigo contagiosa) is commonly caused by

streptococcus pyogenes
staphylococcus aureus

55

non-bullous impetigo vesiculopustules with crusting occurs in who

children

56

non-bullous impetigo vesiculopustules with crusting occurs where

warm, humid conditions

57

non-bullous impetigo vesiculopustules with crusting risk factors

poverty, crowding, poor hygiene , underlying scabies

58

what are the most common causes of non-bullous impetigo vesiculopustules with crusting

streptococcus pyogenes
staphylococcus aureus

59

streptococcus pyogenes
staphylococcus aureus what does it look like

papules progress to vesicles surrounded by erythema

60

Pustular impetigo look like what

intraepidermal vesicles filled with exudate ( pus)
crusted lesions

61

what causes pustular impetigo

Staph. aureus
GAS

62

what causes Bullous impetigo

Staph aureus of phage group II that produces exfoliative toxin A (no cell adhesion)

63

Bullous impetigo is localized what

staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

64

is there a Nikolsky's sign for Bullous impetigo

no

65

Cellulitis is what type of inflammation and is accompanied by what

acute
-inflammation of draining lymph nodes

66

what bacteria causes cellulitis

GAS and staph aureus

67

what type of children get cellulitis

unimmunized children
- infection with H. influenza type B

68

How can an average person get cellulitis

cats or dogs
-P. multocida

69

what is necrotizing fasciitis

deep seated infection of the subcutaneous tissue leading to destruction of fascia and fat, but may spare skin

70

what does type I necrotizing fasciitis occur

after surgery
- diabetics
- peripheral vascular disease

71

what causes type I necrotizing fasciitis

aerobic and anaerobic bacteria

72

what causes type II necrotizing fasiitis

GAS
-MRSA

73

what bacteria causes necrotizing fasciitis? How does one get this bacteria

V. vulnificus
contaminated seawater
- mariane

74

Myonecrosis: necrotizing infection of muscle caused by what

C. perfringens
-associated with local trauma

75

what is found in the skin of myonecrosis

gas
- fascia and deep muscle spared

76

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is called what disease

Ritter's disease

77

Ritter's syndrome is what Nikolsky's sign and what clinical presentation

positive
- large blister with clear fluid, no organism, no leukocytes

78

Toxic Shock syndrome has what skin involvement? what is it associated with

cutaneous and soft tissue
- tampon use

79

Nikolsky sign

skin finding in which the top layers of the skin slip away from the lower layers when slightly rubbed.

80

Pseudomonas aeruginosa has what type of staining? shape?

Gram negative
rod

81

pseudomonas has what odor

grape-like

82

what causes pseudomonas folliculitis

immersion in contaminated water, hot tubs, swimming pools

83

pseudomonas folliculitis can be a secondary infection from what

acne or depilate their legs

84

burn wounds can have what bacterial infection

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

85

Mycobacterium leprae stains how and does it need oxgyen

gram +
obligately aerobic rod

86

how is mycobacterium leprae spread

aerosols

87

mycobacterium leprae can be grown in what

armadillo
footpads of mice

88

where does mycobacterium leprae grow in body

skin histiocytes ( skin macrophages )
- endothelial cells
-Schwann cells of peripheral nerves

89

how does one diagnose lepromatous leprosy

acid fast stain of nasal mucosa

90

what are two forms of leprae

tuberculoid leprosy
lepromatous leprosy

91

p. aeruginosa bacteremia in neutropenic patients clinically present how

ecthyma gangernosa

92

clinical presntation for tuberculoid leprosy

red-blotchy lesions with anesthetic areas

93

tuberculoid leprosy has what immune response

cell-mediated response - Th1

94

Lepromatous leprosy has what immune response

humoral
Th2

95

lepromatous leprosy is analogous to what other bacteria

miliary TB

96

treatment for lepromatous leprosy

dapsone
ribiospfampin
clofazimine
- 2 years

97

treatment for tuberculoid leprosy

dapsone
rifampin
- 6 months

98

Bacillus anthracis is what type of bacteria

gram +
spore forming

99

name 3 virulance factors for Bacillus anthracis

EF- edema factor
LF- lethal factor
PA protective antigen

100

what makes up edema toxin

edema factor and protective antigen

101

what makes up the Lethal toxin

lethal factor and protective antigen

102

what does edema factor cause

increased intracellular cAMP-impaired flow of ions and water

103

what activates the edema factor

human calmodulin

104

role of lethal factor

induces macrophage to produce high levels of cytokines that trigger shock.

105

role of protective antigen

promotes entry of EF into phagocytic cells

106

how is bacillus anthracis spread

inhalation of aerosolized spores

107

what does chest X-ray look like with Bacillus anthracies

mediastinal widening

108

where does Bacillus anthracies replication occur in the body

lung with local exotoxin release

109

what is the most common symptoms

cutaneous anthrax

110

what is the clinical presentation for anthrax

-painless papule at site of inoculation
- progress to ulcer
-necrotic eschar
-malignant pustule: round black lesion with a rim of edema

111

what should the microscopic exam reveal about B. antrhacis

from papules
- no spires
-serpentine chain of bacilli

112

culture results for B. anthracis

non-hemolytic, sticky, colonies

113

what test confirms B. anthracis

biochemical tests

114

treatment for B. anthracis

Penicillin
Ciprofloxacin
Doxycycline
60 days

115

how does one protect themselves form B. anthracis

-inactivated cell-free product as vaccine
- live attenuated vaccine