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Flashcards in Introduction to skin Deck (65):
1

epidermis is derived from what embryology

ectoderm

2

define rete ridges

epithelial extensions that project into underlying connective tissue and mucous membranes

3

Dermis is derived from

mesoderm

4

hpypodermis (Subcutaneous layer) derived from

mesoderm

5

what layer is thicker in thick skin

stratum corneum

6

which type of skin has stratum lucidium

thick skin

7

which type of skin has hair follicles

think skin

8

Meissner corpuscles respond to

slow vibration
texture

9

Merkel cells respond to

sustained pressure
touch

10

Pacinian corpuscle responds to

deep pressure
fast vibration

11

Ruffini endings respond to

Sustained pressure

12

unmyelinated dendrites of sensory nerve fibers respond to

pain
temperature

13

Merkel cells synpase with what

meylinated afferent aaxons of dorsal root ganglion cells

14

where are Merkel cells found

basal layer of thick skin only

15

characteristics of Stratum corneum

outmost layer
-cornified layer
- dead keratinocytes

16

Stratum lucidum what is in it

differentiation of keratinocytes
-few melanin granules

17

what layer do the keratinocytes become flattened

stratum granulosum ( granular layer)

18

Keratohyalin granules are synthesized from what

bundles of keratin cross-linked with filaggrin

19

what gives stratum granulosum darkly basophilic granular appearnce

fliggrin attaches keratin intermediate filament

20

Stratum Spinosum layer consists of what ( spiny layer)

squamous epithelial cells known as keratinocytes

21

why is the stratum spinosum known as the spiny layer

keratinocytes cytoplasmic projections that form intercellular bridges b/w cells held together by desmosomes

22

what structure are specialized structures for cell-to-cell adhesion

desmosomes
macular adherens

23

what cells are found in stratum spinosum

Langerhan cells
Keratinocytes

24

what are langerhan cells

immune cells derived from monocytes

25

Keratinocytes contain what

keratin
lamellar bodies
melanin granules

26

what does stratum basale ( basal layer) contain

kertinocyte stem cells
melanocytes

27

What do melanocytes contain? what are they synthesized from

melanin
-tyrosine which is from dihyroxyphenylalaline (DOPA)

28

what happens to the epidermis during aging

thinning of epidermis

29

what are the two layers of the dermis

papillary
reticular

30

what does the papillary layer of the dermis contain

Meissner corpuscles
immune cells

31

what does the reticular layer of the dermis contain

pacinian corpuscles

32

what is dermal papilla

projections of dermis that interdigitate with overlying epidermis

33

Primary dermal ridges

have finger/toe prints

34

what is the fascia divided into

superficial and deep

35

superficial fascia is also referred to as ? what does it contain

subcutaneous tissue
-areolar and adipose which unites dermis to deep fascia

36

retinacula

thickened bands of fascia that form restraining bands, such as the extensor retinaculum of the wrist

37

what is a secondary lesion

modification of primary lesion

38

Bulla

vesicle bigger than 1 cm

39

examples of bulla

blisters
phemphigous vulgaris

40

cyst

elevated, circumsribed, encapsulated lesion of dermis or subcutaneous layer

41

example of cyst

epidermal inclusion cyst

42

macule

flat circumscribed lesion that is changed from color of skin

43

example of macule

freckles
nevi ( small moles)

44

nodule

elevated, firm "marble-like", circumscribed lesion
- deeper in dermis than papule

45

papule

elevated, firm circumsribed area

46

patch

flat, non-palpable irregularly shaped macule

47

Petechiae and purpura

red, purple, non-blanching discoloration
less than .5 cm

48

other name of purpura

bruise and ecchymoses

49

differential diagnosis for presence of ecchymoses must always include

physical abuse

50

plaque

elevated, firm and rough lesion with flow top surface

51

pustule

elevated, superficial lesion similar to vesicle but with plurulent fluid

52

Telangiectasia

fine, irregular red lines due to capillary dilation

53

tumor

elevated, solid lesion deep in dermis

54

vesicle

elevated, circumsribed superficial lesion filled with serous fluid
-less than 1 cm

55

wheal ( hive, urtciaria)

transient, elevated, irregular-shaped areas of DERMAL EDEMA

56

how is a wheal formed

MAST CELL DEGRANULATION and HISTAMINE release

57

what are secondary lesions

modified primary skin lesions

58

crust

dried serum, blood, purulent exudates

59

excoriation (scratch)

loss of epidermis leaving linear ling,

60

erosion

loss of epidermis with glistening, depressed moist appearance

61

fissure

linear crack from epidermis to dermis

62

induration

dermal thickening associated with inflammation

63

keloid

irregular, elevated progressively enlarging scar growing beyond boundary of wound

64

lichenification

THICKENED EPIDERMIS

65

scale

heaped up, keratinized cells from corneum