Soft Tissue Flashcards Preview

D & T exam 2 > Soft Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Soft Tissue Deck (114):
1

what is more common in soft tissue cancers, benign or malignant

benign

2

soft tissue cancers metastasize to what and through what

lungs
liver
bone
-blood

3

how is bone involved in soft tissue cancers

direct extension
metastasis

4

what is a classic associated with the etiology of soft tissue cancers

radiation

5

Translocation and gene problem: Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor

t(11:22)
EWS-FLI1 fusion

6

Translocation and gene problem: liposarcoma-myxoid and found cell type

t(12:16)
FUS-DDIT3 fusion

7

Translocation and gene problem: Synovial sarcoma

t(X:18)
SS18-SSX fusion gene

8

Translocation and gene problem: Rhabdomyosarcoma-alveolar type

t(2:13)
PAX3-FOX01 fusion

9

Translocation and gene problem: extraskeletal myxoid chondrasarcoma

t(9:22)
EWS-CHN fusion

10

Rhabdomyosarcoma

malignant tumor involving striated muscle tissue

11

shape of spindle cell

rod-shaped
- long axis at least twich short axis

12

shape of small round (blue) cells

Round
little cytoplasm

13

shape of epithelioid cells

polyhedral; more cytoplasm

14

where are matrix producing cells found

bone and cartilage

15

biphasic cell is combination of what cell types

spindle and epithelial cells

16

Spindle cells found in what cancer

fibrous
schwann cell
fibrohistiocytic
smooth muscle

17

wha is small round ( blue ) cell found in what cancer

rhabdomyosarcoma
PNET/Ewing

18

what is Epitheloid sarcoma found in what cancer

Epithelioid sarcoma

19

matrix producing cells found in what cancer

extraskelatal osteosarcoma

20

Biphasic cell is found in what cancer

biphasic synovial sarcoma

21

Herringbone pattern is found in what cancer

Fibrosarcoma

22

Nuclei in columns ( palisading) pattern found in what cancer

Schwann cell

23

Fasicicles of spindle cells pattern found in

smooth muscles

24

short fascicles of spindle cells radiating from center ( storiform; pinwheel-like) pattern found in

fibrohistiocytic

25

what is the most common adult soft tissue tumor

lipoma

26

Is there pain associated with lipoma? what's the exception

no
angiolipoma

27

what is the most common location of lipoma

subcutaneous trunk and proximal extremeties

28

location of fibrolipoma

fibrous area

29

location of angiolipoma

small vessels

30

where are liposarcoma's usually located

deep soft tissue
- retroperitoneum
- promixal extremities

31

what is the most common type of liposarcoma

well- differentiated

32

well- differentiated liposarcoma has a similar gross appearance as what

benign lipoma

33

what is histo characteristic of well- differentiated liposarcoma

aytpical spindle cells
-cytoplasmic vacuoles scallop nucleus

34

what gene does well- differentiated liposarcoma amplify? what does this cause

MDM2
-inhibits p53

35

myxoid/round cell Liposarcoma is what translocation and gene

t(12;16)
FUS-DDIT3 fusion protein

36

where do myxoid/round cell liposarcoma usually occur on the body

intramuscular; thigh

37

what is the histo characterstic of myxoid/round cell liposarcoma

chicken wire pattern of thin capillaries
- rare lipoblast

38

how aggressive is pleomorphic liposarcoma

very

39

dedifferentiated liposarcoma arises from what

well-differentiated liposarcoma

40

what is the most common volvar forearm

Nodular Fasiitis

41

what layers of the body does Nodular Fasciitis use

Deep dermis, subcutis or muscle

42

what type of cells proliferate in nodular fasciits

spindle cell proliferation of fibroblasts

43

Does nodular Fasciitis reaccur

no if excised

44

how big and fast can nodular fasciitis get

rapid growing up to 2-3cm

45

who usually gets Myositis/Panniculitis Ossificans

athletic adolescents and young adults

46

what layers of skin are involved for Myositis/Panniculitis Ossificans

subcutaneous and muscle

47

Fibromatoses is subdivided into what

superficial fibromatosis
deep-seated fibromatosis ( desmoid tumor)

48

what are superficial fibromatosis made of

nodular or poorly defined fasciciles of fibroblasts and abundant collagen

49

after excision can superficial fibromatosis come back

may recur

50

superficial fibromatosis: Palmer Fibromatosis ( Dupuytren's contracture) what is it

nodular thickening of palmer fascia
- puckers skin and digit flexion contraction
- bilateral
-4th and 5th digit

51

superficial fibromatosis: plantar fibromatosis what is it

irregular of nodular thickening of plantar fascia
-bilateral infrequent

52

superficial fibromatosis: penile Fibromatosis another name

Peyronie's disease

53

superficial fibromatosis: penile Fibromatosis what is it

induration or mass on dorsolateral penis
-abnormal curvature of penis
constricts urethra

54

superficial fibromatosis: Palmer Fibromatosis other name

Dupuytren's contracture

55

another name for deep-seated Fibromatosis

Desmoid tumors

56

Desmoid tumors have mutations in what

APC or Beta-Catenin

57

how large, location and metastasize ability of Deep-seated fibromatosis

large
locally aggressive
do not metastasize

58

can desmoid tumors recur

not if excised, need big margin

59

what are the 3 types of deep-seated fibromatosis

abdominal
intra-abdominal
extra-abdominal

60

where does abdominal deep-seated fibromatosis occur? who usually gets them

anterior abdominal wall
women during or after pregnancy or C-section

61

Where does Intra-abdominal desmoid occur and in what syndrome

Mesentry and pelvic walls
Gardner Syndrome

62

what color are deep-seated fibromatosis

gray-white poorly demarcated

63

what do fibroblasts is fascicles infiltrate in Deep-seated fibromatosis

infilterate tissue

64

how often doe Fibrosarcoma occur

rare

65

where does fibrosarcoma occur

deep extremities

66

what type of cells are found in Fibrosarcoma? what pattern do they form

spindle cells with Herringbone pattern

67

name 3 types of skeletal muscle tumors

Rhabdomyoma
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma
Rhabdomyosarcoma

68

what is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence

Rhabdomyosarcoma

69

where does Rhabdomyosarcoma foundon the body

head/neck
GI tract

70

what is a subtype of Embryonal Rhabdomysosarcoma

Sarcoma Botryoides: in walls of hollow viscera and mucusal lined structures

71

Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma has what colored mass

soft gray infiltrative

72

Embryonal Rhabdomysarcoma mimics what

skeletal muscle embryogenesis: round and spindle cells

73

Sarcoma Botryoides describe it

cluster of grapes
cambium layer: submuscoasl hyercellular layer

74

Characterize the Rhabdomyosarcoma cells

Eccentric eosinophilic cytoplasm with thick and thin filaments
- tadpole cells and strap cells
- MYOD1, myogen, desmin
Small round blue cells

75

who usually gets alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

early to mid-adolescence

76

where does alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma occur

deep muscles of extremities

77

why is it called alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma

fibrous setpa divide tumor into alveolar like spaces

78

translocation for Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma

t(2;13) and t (1;13)
PAX3 or PAX7 to FOXO1

79

pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma occurs in who and where

adults deep soft tissue

80

what are two diagnostic features of pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma

desmin positive
MyoD1 or myogenin positive

81

rate the Rhabdomyosarcoma prognosis

Sarcoma: best
Embryonal: second best
Alveolar/pleomorhic: poor

82

who has better prognosis with Rhabdomyosarcoma

children better than adults

83

what is leiomyoma

benign smooth muscle tumor

84

where does Leiomyoma usually occur

uterus

85

where does Leiomyoma occur on the skin

erector pili
nipples
scrotum
labia

86

what does Leiomyoma do to smooth muscles

bland smooth muscle cells in fascicles

87

what gender gets leiomyosarcoma

females

88

what does Leiomyosarcoma look like

white mases

89

what cells are ound in leiomyosarcoma

malignant spindle cells

90

where does Leiomyosarcoma impact

skin
deep extrememites
retroperitoneum

91

what is Leiomyosarcoma negative for

MyoD1 and myogenin

92

where does synovial sarcoma occur

deep and around large joints

93

translocation for synovial sarcoma

t(X;18) SS18-SSX1 or SS18-SSX2

94

what are two types of synovial sarcoma

biphasic dual differentiation
monophasic ( spindle cell) variant

95

biphasic occurs where and has what type of cell

epithelial cells as glands, cords, or nests
spindle cells: cellular in fascicles

96

monophasic spindle cell variant is positive for what

cytokertins
epithelial membrane antigen

97

another name for undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma

malignant fibrous histiocytoma

98

what is malignant fibrous histiocytoma

group of aggressive neoplasms

99

where does malignant fibrous histiocytoma occur

proximal extremeites and retroperitoneum

100

what does malignant fibrous histiocytoma look like

large gray, hemorrhagic and necrotic

101

Epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin

general epithelial marker

102

MyoD1 and Myogenin

skeletal muslce

103

actin and desmin

skeletal or smooth muscle

104

vemintin

nonepithelial tumors

105

smooth muscle actin

smooth muscle

106

Epithelium

cytokeratin and EMA

107

skeletal muscle

MyoD1
myogenin
desmin
actin

108

smooth muscle

desmin
actin

109

nonepithelial tumors

vimentin

110

spindle cell benign

nodular fasciitis
fibrous histiocytoma
fibromatosis
myositis ossificans
leiomyoma

111

spindle cell malignant

fibrosarcoma
leiomyosarcoma
undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma

112

small round blue cells benign

lymphoid hyperplasia

113

small round blue cells malignant

rhabdomyosarcoma
round cell liposarcoma
lymphoma

114

biphasic

synovial sarcoma