Tumor and Metabolic Diseases Flashcards Preview

D & T exam 2 > Tumor and Metabolic Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumor and Metabolic Diseases Deck (58):
1

Musculoskeletal tumors come from what tissue

mesodermal

2

what is mesodermal tissue

connective tissue like bone, fat, muscles

3

what are Musculoskeletal called

sarcomas

4

Sarcomas metastasize where

lung

5

what are 4 types of Musculoskeletal tumors

benign bone
malignant bone
benign soft tissue
malignant soft tissue

6

histories of what other cancers are important for Musculoskeletal tumors

prostate, lung, breast, thyroid, renal

7

chest x-ray: CXR

lung

8

mammogram

breast

9

PSA

prostate

10

UA

renal

11

TSH/Thyroid US

thyroid

12

SPEP/ UPEP

myeloma

13

ESR/CRP

infection

14

CBC diff, CMP

anemia, alk phos

15

CT chest/ abdomen/ pelvis

look for primary or mets to lung

16

MRI

asses soft tissue of anatomy

17

bone scan

bony activity, skip lesions

18

X-ray of limbs

bony destruction

19

above what age are bone tumors most likely metastatic

40

20

growing soft tissue masses are most likely what

malignant

21

how do you treat soft tissue >5cm or deep

excision

22

how do you treat malignant soft tissue

resection

23

how do you treat benign bone

excision if aggressive

24

how do you treat malignant bone

chemo
resection
reconstruction
radiation ( not first line)

25

what is the translocation of Ewing

11,22,

26

what part of the bone does osteomyelitis occur

metaphysis

27

osteomyelitis: most common bacteria involvied

1. staph aureus
2. hemolytic strep
others: TB, syphillis, fungus and virus

28

most common spread for osteomyelitis? other avenues

hematogenously
- direct inoculation with open fractures

29

someone with osteomyelitis will have a history of what

achy, unrelenting night pain
fever

30

what will the exam show for osteomylitis

tenderness in bone
ROM of joints ok
swelling, warmth, redness, draining sinus

31

Osteomyelitis: CBC with diff

elevated WBC with left shift

32

Osteomyelitis: ESR/CRP

elevated inflammatory markers

33

Osteomyelitis: X-ray of limb

may show Brodie's abscess

34

Osteomyelitis: blood culture

may grow bug from hematogenous spread

35

Osteomyelitis: bone culture

gold standard for diagnsosis

36

Osteomyelitis: MRI/bone scan

very helpful to asses abscess and extent

37

Osteomyelitis: treatment

empiric: Vanc
clear abscess or no improvement: surgical washout
chronic: multiple treatments

38

what is osteoprosis

low bone mass leading to micro-architectural deterioration, causing increase fragility of bone

39

Describe the different types of primary osteoprosis

type I: postmenopausal, caused by hormone changes
Type II: senile, altered calcium metabolism

40

what is secondary osteoporosis

long term steroid use
- hyperparathyroidsm
- hyperthyroidsim
- long term immobilization

41

what are 3 things the physical exam will show for osteoporosis

loss of height
- thoracic kyphosis
- loss of menstruation

42

what is a common test used for osteoporosis

DEXA scan of spine, hip, or femur
T score: compare to 25 yr old
Z score: compare to matched age

43

for DEXA scan how much below SD means they have osteoporosis

44

what does NTx measure

bone collagen

45

osteoporosis: CBC

anemia

46

osteoporosis: TSH/PTH

hyperthyroid
hyperPTHism

47

osteoporosis: SPEP/UPEP

Multiple myeloma

48

osteoporosis: Ca/P/Alk Phos/Vit D

osteomalacia

49

BUN/Cr/ LFT indicates what

renal/liver causes

50

how does one prevent osteoporosis

maximize Ca/Vit D
weight bearing exercises
minimize smoking, caffeine, meds

51

treatment for osteoporosis

bisphosphates
Calcitonin
Pulsed PTH
SERMS ( not recommended)

52

what does the doctor need to pay attention to with Biphophates

can only use for about 5 years
- disrupts ruffled border of osteoclasts

53

what are the 5 most common primary carcinomas that metastasize to the bone

prostate, lung, breast, thyroid, renal

54

what is the common bacteria that causes oestomyelitis

staph aureus

55

what is the difference between T and Z score in DEXA scan

T- compare with 25 yr old
Z- compare with your age

56

what is the most common metastatic site for sarcomas

lung

57

why does osteomyelitis most commenly happen in the metaphysis of bone

blood vessels

58

name one common medicine that with long term use can cause secondary osteoprorsis

Steroid use