Barrons Set 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Barrons Set 7 Deck (500):
1

nebula

diffuse mass of interstellar dust or gas; galaxy

2

necromancy

black magic; sorcery; dealings with the dead; art that professes to communicate with the spirits of the dead so as to predict the future; CF. necromancer; CF. necro+divination; CF. necro-: death; Ex. necropolis

3

nefarious

very wicked

4

negate

cancel out; nullify; cause to have no effect; deny; N. negation

5

negligence

neglect; failure to take reasonable care; ADJ. negligent: neglectful; lax; not taking enough care

6

negligible

so small, trifling, or unimportant as to be easily disregarded

7

nemesis

someone seeking revenge; source of downfall or ruin; CF. Nemesis

8

neologism

new or newly coined word or phrase

9

neophyte

recent convert; new member of a religious group; beginner; CF. plant

10

nepotism

favoritism (to a relative); CF. nephew

11

favoritism

display of partiality toward a favored person

12

nether

lower; Ex. nether garments/regions

13

nettle

irritate; annoy; vex; ADJ. nettlesome

14

nexus

connection

15

nib

beak(bill); pen point

16

nicety

precision; accuracy; minute distinction or difference; Ex. to a nicety: exactly; precisely; Ex. distinguish between niceties

17

niggardly

meanly stingy; parsimonious; N. niggard: stingy person

18

niggle

spend too much time on minor points (esp. when finding fault); find fault; Ex. niggle over details; ADJ. niggling

19

nihilist

one who considers traditional beliefs to be groundless and existence meaningless; absolute skeptic; revolutionary terrorist; CF. nihilism: belief that nothing has meaning or value; belief that destruction of existing political or social institutions is necessary for future improvement

20

nip

snip off; stop something's growth or development; bite; make numb with cold; Ex. nip the plan; Ex. A guard dog nipped the postman; Ex. fingers nipped by the extreme chill

21

snip

short quick cut with scissors; V: cut with scissors

22

pinch

squeeze between the thumb and a finger, or other edges; Ex. I had to pinch myself to make sure I wasn't dreaming. N: amount that can be held between the thumb and a finger

23

nirvana

in Buddhist teachings, the ideal state in which the individual loses himself in the attainment of an impersonal beatitude

24

impersonal

not being a person; not showing personal feelings; Ex. impersonal force/manner/organization

25

nocturnal

done or active at night; Ex. nocturnal animals/raids; CF. nocturne

26

noisome

foul smelling; very unpleasant; unwholesome

27

nomadic

wandering; N. nomad: tribe who migrates from place to place

28

nomenclature

terminology(system of specialized words); system of names or naming things

29

nominal

in name only; of a name; trifling; (of a sum of money) very small; CF. nominate: propose as a candidate; appoint

30

nonchalance

indifference; lack of concern; composure; ADJ. nonchalant: unconcerned; cool; indifferent; Ex. nonchalant attitude to his debts

31

noncommittal

neutral; refusing commitment to a particular opinion; unpledged; undecided

32

nondescript

undistinctive; ordinary; ordinary-looking; Ex. nondescript fellow in a crowd

33

nonentity

person of no importance; nonexistence

34

nonplus

put at a loss; bring to a halt by confusion; perplex; CF. no more

35

nostalgia

homesickness; longing for the past; Ex. nostalgia for the clothes of 1920s; ADJ. nostalgic

36

nostrum

questionable medicine; quack medicine; CF. our (remedy)

37

notable

conspicuous; worthy of note; remarkable; important; distinguished; noted

38

notoriety

disrepute; ill fame

39

nova

star that suddenly becomes much brighter and then returns to its original brightness

40

novelty

something new; newness; ADJ. novel: new; original

41

novice

beginner

42

noxious

harmful; CF. obnoxious

43

nuance

shade of slight difference in meaning or color; subtle distinction

44

shade

slight difference in degree; nuance; degree of color; Ex. shades of meaning/grey

45

gradation

series of gradual stages; degree in such a progression

46

nubile

marriageable; of marriageable age; CF. connubial

47

nugatory

worthless; futile

48

nullify

make invalid; make null; invalidate

49

numismatist

person who collects coins; N. numismatics: study or collection of money, coins, and medals

50

nuptial

related to marriage or the wedding ceremony; N. nuptials: wedding ceremony

51

nurture

nourish; feed; educate; rear; care for while it is growing or developing; foster; cultivate; N: something that nourishes; rearing

52

nutrient

nourishing substance; ADJ: providing nourishment

53

nutrition

process of nourishing or being nourished; CF. malnutrition

54

nutritious

providing nourishment

55

nourish

provide with food necessary for life and growth

56

nourishment

something that nourishes; food

57

oaf

stupid awkward person; CF. elf

58

obdurate

stubborn; refusing to change one's belief

59

obeisance

bow (to show respect and obedience)

60

obelisk

tall column tapering(becoming gradually narrower toward the end) and ending in a pyramid

61

obese

excessively fat; N. obesity

62

obfuscate

confuse; muddle; cause confusion; make needlessly complex; make so confused as to be difficult to understand

63

obituary

death notice (esp. in a newspaper); ADJ.

64

objective

not influenced by emotions; fair; N: goal; aim

65

obligatory

binding; required; compulsory; V. oblige: constrain; make grateful; do a favor; accommodate

66

oblique

indirect; slanting (deviating from the perpendicular or from a straight line); Ex. oblique reference

67

obliterate

destroy completely; wipe out; Ex. obliterate the village

68

oblivion

obscurity; condition of being completely forgotten; forgetfulness

69

oblivious

inattentive or unmindful; unaware; wholly absorbed; forgetful(having the habit of forgetting)

70

obloquy

slander; disgrace; infamy

71

obnoxious

offensive; disagreeable; Ex. obnoxious smell

72

obscure

dark; vague; unclear; not well known; Ex. obscure meaning/village; V: darken; cover; make unclear; Ex. obscure the moon/meaning

73

obsequious

slavishly attentive; servile; full of servile compliance; sycophantic

74

slavish

of or like a slave; servile; showing no originality; copied very closely; Ex. slavish devotion/copy of the original

75

obsequy

funeral ceremony

76

obsessive

related to thinking about something constantly; of an obsession; preoccupying; N. obsession: compulsive preoccupation with a fixed idea; compulsive idea; V. obsess: preoccupy the mind of excessively

77

obsidian

black volcanic rock

78

scion

detached plant shoot used in grafting; descendant

79

obsolete

outmoded; no longer used

80

obstetrician

physician specializing in delivery(assisting in giving birth) of babies; N. obstetrics; CF. midwife

81

obstinate

stubborn; hard to control or treat; Ex. obstinate cough; N. obstinacy

82

obstreperous

boisterous; noisy and uncontrollable

83

obtrude

push (oneself or one's ideas) forward or intrude; impose (oneself or one's ideas) on others; butt in; stick out or extrude; thrust out; Ex. obtrude A on B; ADJ. obtrusive; N. obtrusion; CF. unobtrusive

84

obtuse

blunt; not sharp; stupid; slow in understanding

85

obviate

make unnecessary; get rid of; Ex. obviate the need

86

Occident

the West

87

occlude

shut; close; obstruct; Ex. A blood clot occluded an artery.

88

occult

mysterious; secret; supernatural; beyond human comprehension; CF. mysterious to human ?; OP. bare

89

oculist

physician who specializes in treatment of the eyes

90

odious

arousing strong dislike; hateful(causing hatred); vile

91

odium

detestation; quality of being odious; hatefulness; disrepute (resulting from hateful conduct)

92

odoriferous

giving off an odor

93

odorous

having an odor

94

odyssey

long, eventful, adventurous journey

95

offensive

attacking; insulting; distasteful; V. offend: violate; hurt the feelings of; N. offense: offending; violating of a moral or social code; crime; attack; Ex. first offense

96

offhand

casual; done without prior thought or preparation

97

officious

meddlesome; excessively pushy in offering one's services; overly eager in offering unwanted services or advices; Ex. officious bellboy

98

pushy

disagreeably aggressive

99

ogle

look at amorously; make eyes at; Ex. old men ogling young girls

100

olfactory

concerning the sense of smell

101

oligarchy

government by a privileged few

102

ominous

threatening; of an evil omen

103

threat

sign or warning (of coming danger); Ex. threat of rain; V: express a threat; give warning of (something bad); Ex. The cloud threatens rain.

104

omnipotent

all-powerful; having unlimited power

105

omnipresent

universally present; ubiquitous

106

omniscient

all-knowing

107

omnivorous

eating both plant and animal food; devouring everything

108

onerous

burdensome

109

onomatopoeia

words formed in imitation of natural sounds

110

rustle

make slight sounds like silk moving or being rubbed together

111

onslaught

vicious assault; fierce attack; Ex. unexpected onslaught of the enemy

112

slaughter

killing of animals for food; massacre; V: butcher (animals) for food; kill in large numbers

113

onus

burden; responsibility

114

spare

give; use; refrain from harming; save from experiencing; exempt; Ex. spare me 5 minutes; Ex. Take this money and spare my life; Ex. The emperor was spared the onus; ADJ: kept in reserve; free for other use; unoccupied; Ex. spare time

115

opalescent

iridescent; lustrous; like an opal; N. opalescence

116

opaque

dark; not transparent; N. opacity

117

opiate

medicine to induce sleep or deaden pain; something that relieves emotions or causes inaction; sleep-producing drug containing opium

118

opportune

timely; well-chosen

119

opportunist

individual who sacrifices principles for expediency by taking advantage of circumstances; N. opportunism

120

opprobrium

infamy; disgrace arising from shameful conduct; vilification(slander); scorn; contempt; Ex. opprobrium hurled against him; ADJ. opprobrious: expressing contempt; shameful or infamous

121

optician

maker and seller of eyeglasses

122

optimist

person who looks on the bright side; N. optimism

123

optimum

most favorable; optimal; N: most favorable condition

124

optional

not compulsory; left to one's choice; N. option: act of choosing; choice; freedom or power to choose; something available as a choice; Ex. have no option; Ex. two options

125

optometrist

one who fits glasses to remedy visual defects

126

opulence

extreme wealth; luxuriousness; abundance; ADJ. opulent: possessing great wealth; abundant

127

opus

work (esp. musical composition); Ex. magnum opus: masterpiece; CF. opera

128

oracular

of an oracle; prophetic; uttered as if with divine authority; mysterious or ambiguous; hard to understand; N. oracle: wiser person; prophecy made by an oracle

129

orator

public speaker

130

oratorio

dramatic poem set to music; long musical work with singing but without acting; CF. cantata

131

ordain

decree or command; grant holy orders; predestine; install as a minister, priest, or rabbi; N. ordainment; CF. ordination

132

ordeal

severe trial or affliction; difficult experience; trial(test of patience or endurance); affliction

133

ordinance

decree; authoritative order

134

ordination

ceremony conferring holy orders; ceremony of ordaining a priest

135

orgy

wild drunken revelry; unrestrained indulgence in an activity; Ex. orgy of shopping

136

orient

get one's bearings; adjust; make familiar with a situation; orientate

137

orientation

act of finding oneself in society; orienting

138

orifice

mouthlike opening; small opening (esp. to a cavern or passage of the body); CF. mouth

139

ornate

excessively or elaborately decorated

140

ornithologist

scientific student of birds; N. ornithology: scientific study of birds

141

orthodox

traditional; (of someone) conservative in belief; adhering to an established doctrine

142

orthography

correct spelling; CF. ortho-: straight; correct; Ex. orthodontics

143

oscillate

vibrate pendulumlike; waver

144

osseous

made of bone; bony

145

ossify

change or harden into bone; become hard and unchanging in one's ideas

146

ostensible

apparent; appearing as such; professed(pretended); pretended; Ex. ostensible purpose of the expedition

147

apparent

evident; easily seen or understood; appearing as such; Ex. apparent improvement

148

ostentatious

showy; trying to attract attention; pretentious; N. ostentation: showy display

149

ostracize

banish from a group; exclude from public favor; ban; Ex. His friends ostracized him. N. ostracism

150

blackball

vote against (an applicant); ostracize; N: negative vote

151

oust

expel; drive out; force out; N. ouster: ousting

152

outlandish

bizzare; peculiar; unconventional

153

outmoded

no longer in fashion or use; no longer stylish; old-fashioned

154

outskirts

fringes; outer borders (as of a city); Ex. outskirts of Boston

155

outspoken

candid; blunt

156

blunt

having a dull edge; abrupt and frank in speech or manner; brusque; V: make or become blunt

157

outstrip

outrun; surpass; outdo

158

outwit

outsmart; defeat by behaving more cleverly

159

ovation

enthusiastic applause

160

overbearing

bossy; domineering and arrogant; decisively important; Ex. overbearing manner/importance; V. overbear: dominate

161

overt

open to view; public; not secret; CF. covert

162

overweening

arrogant; presumptuous

163

overwrought

nervous or excited; extremely agitated; hysterical; wrought-up; CF. wrought: made or done

164

hysteria

excessive or uncontrollable excitement; N. hysteric: person suffering from hysteria; CF. hysterics: attack of hysteria

165

ovoid

egg-shaped; CF. ovum; CF. ovulate

166

pachyderm

thick-skinned animal

167

pacifist

one opposed to force; antimilitarist; ADJ. N. pacifism: opposition to war as a means of resolving disputes

168

pacify

soothe; make calm or quiet; subdue; bring peace to

169

paean

song of praise or joy; Ex. paeans celebrating the victory

170

painstaking

taking pains; showing hard work; taking great care; very careful and through

171

palatable

agreeable; pleasing to the taste

172

palate

roof of the mouth; sense of the taste

173

palatial

of or suitable for a palace; magnificent

174

paleontology

study of prehistoric life or fossils; CF. paleo-: ancient or prehistoric; Ex. paleography: study of ancient written documents

175

palette

board on which painter mixes pigments(coloring matters)

176

palimpsest

parchment or piece of writing material used for second time after original writing has been erased

177

parchment

writing material made from the skin of a sheep or goat

178

pall

become boring; grow tiresome

179

pallet

small poor bed; Ex. straw pallet

180

palliate

ease pain (without curing); make less severe or offensive (a crime or illness)

181

pallid

pale; wan; Ex. pallid complexion

182

palpable

tangible; (of something bad) easily perceptible; obvious; Ex. palpable blunder

183

palpitate

throb; beat rapidly; flutter; tremble; Ex. Her heart began to palpitate.

184

throb

(of a heart or machine) beat rapidly or violently; N. Ex. hearthrob: heartbeat; sweetheart

185

paltry

insignificant; petty; trifling; contemptible; Ex. paltry sum; CF. trash

186

pan

criticize harshly

187

panacea

cure-all; remedy for all diseases

188

panache

flair; manner of doing things without any difficulty (causing admiration); flamboyance; bunch of feathers (on a helmet); Ex. with great panache

189

pandemic

widespread; affecting the majority of people; N: pandemic disease; CF. all people

190

pandemonium

wild tumult(commotion); wild noisy disorder; CF. Paradise Lost

191

pander

cater to (the low desires of others)

192

cater

provide food and drink (for); cater to: try to satisfy (desires of a bad kind)

193

panegyric

formal praise; encomium; Ex. I don't deserve such panegyrics.

194

panoramic

denoting an unobstructed and comprehensive view; N. panorama: unbroken view of a wide area

195

pantomime

acting without dialogue; V.

196

papyrus

ancient paper made from stem of papyrus plant

197

parable

short simple story teaching a moral

198

paradigm

model; example that serves as a model; pattern; list of all the inflectional forms of a word

199

paradox

something apparently contradictory in nature (that may nonetheless be true); statement that looks false but is actually correct

200

paragon

model of perfection; Ex. paragon of virtue

201

parallelism

state of being parallel; similarity; analogy

202

parallel

similar; analogous; corresponding; N: parallel line; person or thing that is parallel (to another); similarity; Ex. know of no parallel to the case; Ex. without parallel; V: be similar to; make parallel; Ex. Your experience parallels mine; CF. unparalleled

203

parameter

limit; independent variable; Ex. parameters of the problem; Ex. within the parameters of the budget

204

paramount

foremost in importance; supreme; CF. para-: beyond; above; Ex. paranormal

205

paramour

illicit lover

206

inamorata

woman whom a man loves

207

paranoia

psychosis marked by delusions of grandeur or persecution; N: ADJ: paranoid, paranoiac

208

paraphernalia

equipment; odds and ends used in a particular activity; personal belongings; Ex. photographic paraphernalia; CF. married woman's property exclusive of her dowry

209

dowry

money or property brought by a bride to her husband at marriage

210

paraphrase

restate a passage in one's own words while retaining thought of author; N: restatement of a text in other words

211

parasite

animal or plant living on another; toady; sycophant; CF. para-: beside

212

infest

inhabit in numbers large enough to be harmful; Ex. Mice infested the house; Ex. shark-infested waters

213

parched

extremely dry; very thirsty; V. parch: make or become extremely dry (by exposure to heat)

214

pariah

social outcast; Ex. Mariah the pariah

215

outcast

one that has been excluded from a society; ADJ.

216

parity

equality; close resemblance; CF. disparate

217

parlance

language; manner of speaking; idiom; Ex. in legal/common parlance

218

parley

conference (between opponents); CF. speak

219

parochial

narrow in scope or outlook; provincial; related to parishes

220

parish

area in the care of a single priest and served by one main church

221

outlook

point of view; view from a particular place; expectation for the future; prospect; Ex. outlook on life; Ex. pleasing outlook; Ex. weather outlook

222

parody

humorous imitation; spoof; takeoff; travesty; V.

223

spoof

parody

224

takeoff

burlesque; act of leaving the ground

225

paroxysm

fit or attack of pain, laughter, rage; sudden outburst

226

parquet

floor made of wood strips inlaid in a mosaic like matter; CF. strip: long narrow piece

227

parry

ward off a blow; deflect; Ex. He parried the unwelcome question very skillfully; N.

228

ward

administrative division of a city; division in a hospital or prison; incompetent person placed under the protection of a guardian; V: guard; ward off: avert

229

parsimony

stinginess; excessive frugality; ADJ. parsimonious

230

partial

incomplete; favoring one side over another; having a liking for something

231

partiality

state of being partial; inclination; favorable bias; special fondness; preference

232

partisan

one-sided; prejudiced; committed to a party (with dislike of any others); N: strong supporter of a party; guerrilla

233

parvenu

upstart; newly rich person

234

partition

divide into parts

235

pass\'e

old-fashioned; past the prime

236

passive

not active; acted upon; receiving an action without acting in return; accepting without resistance

237

pastiche

imitation of another's style in musical composition or in writing; work of art openly imitating the works of other artists

238

pastoral

rural; of rural life; idyllic; of a pastor

239

patent

obvious; easily seen; open for the public to read; of or protected by a patent; Ex. patent to everyone; N.

240

pathetic

causing sadness, compassion, pity; touching

241

touching

causing a feeling of pity or sympathy; pathetic; V. touch: cause to feel pity or sympathy; ADJ. touched

242

pathological

pertaining to disease; N. pathology: study of disease

243

pathos

tender sorrow; pity; quality in art or literature that produces these feelings; Ex. pathos that runs through the novel

244

patina

green crust on old bronze works or copper; tone slowly taken by varnished painting

245

varnish

paint used to coat a surface with a glossy film; glossy coating produced by using this substance; Ex. nail varnish; V.

246

patois

local or provincial dialect

247

patriarch

father and ruler of a family or tribe

248

patrician

noble; aristocratic; N: person of high rank; aristocrat; CF. member of the governing classes in ancient Rome; CF. plebian

249

patronize

support; act superior toward; treat in a condescending manner; be a customer of; N. patron: one that supports; regular customer; N. patronage; CF. boycott

250

paucity

scarcity; dearth

251

pauper

very poor person

252

peccadillo

slight offense or fault; CF. sin

253

swipe

hit with a sweeping motion; N.

254

pecuniary

pertaining to money

255

pedagogue

teacher; CF. child leader

256

pedagogy

teaching; art of education

257

pedant

scholar who overemphasizes book learning, trivial details of learning, or technicalities

258

pedantic

bookish; showing off learning; marked by an excessive ostentatious concern for book learning; N. pedantry

259

bookish

fond of books and reading

260

studious

given to diligent study

261

pedestrian

ordinary; dull; unimaginative(lacking in imagination); going on foot; Ex. pedestrian prose; N.

262

precinct

division of a city for election or police purposes; precincts: space that surrounds a building; Ex. precincts of the college

263

pedigree

ancestry; lineage

264

pediatrician

physician specializing in children's diseases; N. pediatrics

265

peerless

having no equal; incomparable

266

peer

one who has equal standing with another; nobleman; V: look intently; N. peerage; CF. peeress

267

pejorative

(of a word or phrase) suggesting that someone is of little value; negative in connotation; having a belittling effect; Ex. Many women now considers ``housewife'' a pejorative expression, because it patronized them.

268

pell-mell

in confusion; disorderly; Ex. dash pell-mell

269

pellucid

transparent; limpid(crystal clear); clear in meaning; easy to understand

270

penance

self-imposed punishment for sin; Ex. do penance for one's sins; CF. penitent

271

penchant

strong inclination; strong liking (esp. for something that is disapproved of by other people); Ex. penchant for fast cars

272

pendant(pendent)

hanging down from something; pending; N: ornament (hanging from a necklace etc.)

273

pending

not yet decided or settled; impending; Ex. pending decision; PREP. while awaiting; until; Ex. delay the decision pending his return

274

pendulous

hanging; suspended

275

suspend

cause to stop for a period; interrupt; hold in abeyance; defer; hang from above; exclude for a period from a position; Ex. suspended state; Ex. suspend judgment; Ex. suspended from the team; N. suspension

276

suspense

state of being undecided; anxiety or apprehension resulting from uncertainty

277

penitent

repentant; N.

278

pensive

dreamily or deeply thoughtful; sadly thoughtful; thoughtful with a hint of sadness; contemplative; CF. think over

279

penumbra

partial shadow (in an eclipse); CF. almost shadow

280

penury

extreme poverty; stinginess; ADJ. penurious: very poor; stingy

281

peon

landless agricultural worker; bond servant; menial worker; N. peonage

282

perceptive

insightful; showing a good ability at perceiving and understanding; aware; wise; of perception

283

percussion

striking one object against another sharply; Ex. percussion instrument; N: striking together of two bodies; sound caused by percussion

284

perdition

damnation; complete ruin; hell

285

damn

condemn; criticize severely; condemn to everlasting punishment; doom; bring to ruin; N. damnation

286

doom

condemnation to a severe penalty; ruin; fate (esp. a tragic or ruinous one); V.

287

peregrination

journey; V. peregrinate

288

peremptory

demanding and leaving no choice; imperative; Ex. peremptory decree/knock

289

perennial

something long-lasting; perennial plant; ADJ: lasting through the year or many years; lasting for a long time; enduring

290

perfidious

treacherous; disloyal; N. perfidy: treachery

291

perforate

pierce; put a hole through

292

perfunctory

done routinely and with little care; superficial; not thorough; lacking interest, care, or enthusiasm; Ex. perfunctory kiss

293

perigee

point of moon's orbit when it is nearest the earth; CF. apogee

294

perimeter

outer boundary; length of the outer boundary; circumference

295

bound

leap or spring; limit or confine; constitute the limit of; Ex. bounded by Canada; N: leap or jumping; boundary; ADJ: certain; having a duty to do something (legally or morally); confined by bonds; Ex. We are bound to be late; Ex. I am bound to say my opinion; CF. bounce, rebound

296

peripatetic

walking about from place to place (to work); moving; Ex. peripatetic school of philosophy

297

peripheral

of a periphery; marginal; outer; of minor importance; not central; Ex. peripheral nerve/interest

298

periphery

outside edge especially of a round surface; perimeter; Ex. periphery of the town

299

perjury

false testimony while under oath; V. perjure oneself: testify falsely under oath

300

permeable

that can be permeated; penetrable; porous; allowing liquids or gas to pass through; V. permeate: spread or flow throughout; charge

301

pernicious

very harmful; deadly; very destructive; Ex. pernicious effect/anemia

302

peroration

conclusion of an oration; perorating; V. perorate: conclude a speech; speak at great length

303

perpetrate

commit an offense; do (something wrong)

304

perpetual

everlasting

305

perpetuate

make perpetual; make something last for a long time; preserve from extinction; N. perpetuity

306

perquisite(perk)

any gain above stipulated salary; Ex. perquisites such as free meals and a car

307

personable

attractive (in personality or appearance)

308

perspicacious

(of someone) having insight; penetrating; astute

309

perspicuity

clearness of expression; freedom from ambiguity

310

perspicuous

(of something) plainly expressed; easy to understand; Ex. perspicuous comments

311

pert

(esp. of a girl or young woman) impertinent; forward; trim; jaunty; Ex. pert young miss/hat

312

forward

presumptuous or bold

313

pertinacious

holding tenaciously to an action; stubborn; persistent

314

pertinent

suitable; to the point; relevant

315

perturb

disturb greatly

316

peruse

read through with care; N. perusal

317

pervasive

spread throughout; V. pervade: (of smells, ideas, feelings) spread throughout; charge; permeate

318

perverse

purposely continuing to do something wrong; stubbornly wrongheaded; perverted; directed away from what is right; wicked and unacceptable; Ex. perverse satisfaction; Ex. Hannibal Lecter in a perverse mood; N. perversity

319

perversion

corruption; turning from right to wrong

320

pervert

corrupt; turn from right to wrong; misuse; Ex. perverted sexual desire/scientific knowledge; N: person whose sexual behavior is not natural

321

wrongheaded

stubbornly wrong

322

pessimism

belief that life is basically bad or evil; gloominess; tendency to take the gloomiest possible view of a situation; ADJ. pessimistic

323

pestilential(pestilent)

causing plague; tending to cause death; baneful; N. pestilence: fatal epidemic disease (esp. bubonic plague)

324

pestle

tool for mashing or grinding substances in a hard bowl or mortar

325

mortar

vessel in which substances are crushed with a pestle

326

mash

crush into mash; convert into mash; N: mixture of ground grain and nutrients fed to livestock and fowl

327

petrify

turn to stone; cause to become stonelike; stun or paralyze

328

petty

trivial; unimportant; very small; small-minded; petty-minded

329

petulant

touchy; peevish; ill-tempered

330

phalanx

formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)

331

pharisaical

pertaining to the Pharisees, who paid scrupulous attention to tradition; self-righteous; hypocritical

332

pharisee

Pharisee: member of an ancient Jewish group that emphasized strict observance of the Mosaic law (considering themselves very holy); hypocritical self-righteous person

333

self-righteous

sure of one's own righteousness; moralistic

334

phenomena

observable facts; subjects of scientific investigation; SG. phenomenon: observable fact; very unusual person, thing, or event; marvel; wonder; CF. phenomenons; ADJ. phenomenal: very unusual; extraordinary; of a phenomenon; Ex. phenomenal strength

335

philanderer

faithless lover; flirt

336

philanthropist

lover of mankind; doer of good; N. philanthropy

337

philatelist

stamp-collector; N. philately: stamp collecting

338

philistine

narrow-minded person, uncultured and exclusively interested in material gain; uncultured person who is indifferent to artistic and cultural values; member of an ancient people in Palestine; OP. aesthete

339

philology

study of language or words

340

phlegmatic

calm and unexcitable; not easily disturbed; CF. phlegm: sticky mucus produced in the respiratory tract

341

phobia

morbid fear

342

phoenix

symbol of immortality or rebirth; Ex. phoenix rising from its ashes

343

phylum

major classification, second to kingdom, of plants and animals; category ranking below a kingdom and above a class; division

344

physiognomy

face (as showing the character and the mind); art of judging human character from facial features

345

physiological

pertaining to the science of the function of living organisms; N. physiology

346

piebald

of different colors; mottled; spotted in different colors (esp. in black and white); Ex. piebald horse; CF. pie+bald

347

piecemeal

one part at a time; gradually; in stages; Ex. read a novel piecemeal

348

pied

piebald; variegated(many-colored); multicolored

349

piety

devoutness; reverence for God; ADJ. pious

350

pigment

coloring matter (usually powder to be mixed with water or oil)

351

pillage

plunder

352

pillory

punish by placing in a wooden frame or pillory; subject or expose to criticism and ridicule; N.

353

pine

long for; yearn; languish from longing or grief; decline

354

pinion

restrain or immobilize by binding the wings or legs; N: bird's wing

355

pinnacle

peak; highest point; acme; Ex. pinnacle of fame

356

pious

devout; religious; N. piety

357

piquant

pleasantly tart-tasting; spicy; pleasantly stimulating; Ex. piquant situation when my old enemy asked for my help

358

tart

sharp to the taste; acid-tasting; caustic; sarcastic; Ex. tart apple/reply

359

sour

having a sharp or acid taste; acid; tart; bad-tempered; V.

360

pique

irritation; resentment from wounded pride (eg. loss in a contest); V: provoke; arouse; annoy; cause to feel resentment; Ex. pique her curiosity

361

piscatorial

pertaining to fishing; CF. Pisces

362

pitfall

hidden danger; concealed trap

363

beware

be cautious (of)

364

pith

core or marrow; spongelike substance in the center of stems; essence; substance

365

marrow

soft fatty tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of blood cells

366

pithy

concise and meaningful; substantial; meaty

367

pittance

small amount (of money); small allowance or wage

368

pivotal

of a pivot; central; critical; crucial

369

placate

pacify; bring peace to; conciliate; appease

370

placebo

harmless substance prescribed as a dummy pill

371

tablet

small round piece of medicine; flat piece of stone or metal bearing an inscription; Ex. stone tablet on the wall

372

placid

peaceful; calm; Ex. placid child/lake

373

plagiarize

steal another's ideas or writings and pass them off as one's own; Ex. ideas plagiarized from my article; N. plagiarism; CF. kidnap

374

plaintive

expressing sorrow; mournful; Ex. plaintive song

375

plait

braid; interwine; interweave strands or lengths of; make by weaving strands together; Ex. plaited hair; N: braided length as of hair o fabric; CF. pigtail, ponytail

376

plasticity

ability to be molded; ADJ. plastic: capable of being shaped or molded; Ex. plastic material such as clay

377

platitude

trite remark; commonplace statement; ADJ. platitudinous

378

commonplace

ordinary; N: something ordinary or common; trite remark

379

commonwealth

nation governed by the people; republic; people of a nation

380

platonic

purely spiritual; theoretical; without sensual desire

381

plaudit

praise; enthusiastic approval; round(succession or series) of applause; ADJ. plauditory; CF. applaud

382

plausible

conceivably true; having a show of truth but open to doubt; specious

383

plebeian

common; vulgar; pertaining to the common people; N: common people in ancient Rome; CF. patrician

384

plebiscite

direct vote by the entire electorate (on an important issue)

385

referendum

direct vote by all the people

386

plenary

(of power) complete; full; fully attended by all qualified members; Ex. plenary power

387

plenitude

abundance; plenty; great amount; completeness; fullness; CF. plenary, plenty

388

plethora

excess; overabundance; Ex. a plethora of excuses

389

pliable

flexible; easily influenced; yielding; adaptable

390

pliant

flexible; easily influenced

391

plight

difficult condition; condition or state (esp. a bad state or condition); predicament

392

pluck

courage; V: pull off or out; pull out the hair or feathers of; ADJ. plucky: courageous; brave

393

plumage

feathers of a bird;

394

plumb

exactly vertical; N: weight on the end of a line; V: examine very carefully or critically in order to understand; measure depth (by sounding); Ex. plumb the depth of

395

plumber

one who installs and repairs pipes and plumbing(pipes)

396

plummet

fall sharply; fall straight down; Ex. Stock prices plummeted.

397

plutocracy

society ruled by the wealthy

398

podiatrist

doctor who treats ailments of the feet; chiropodist; N. podiatrics

399

podium

pedestal; raised platform

400

pedestal

support or base as for a pillar or statue

401

poignancy

quality of being deeply moving; keenness of emotion; ADJ. poignant: touching; deeply moving; (of sorrow, grief, etc.) painful; keenly distressing to the mind; Ex. poignant memory/anxiety; CF. prick

402

polarize

split into opposite extremes or camps

403

polarity

state of having two opposite qualities

404

polar

of a pole; characterized by opposite extremes; Ex. polar opposites

405

camp

group sharing a common cause or opinion

406

polemic

attack or defense of an opinion; controversy or refutation; argument in support of point of view; N. polemics: art of debate or controversy

407

polemical(polemic)

aggressive in verbal attack; disputatious (rather than simply expressing opinions)

408

politic

prudent; judicious; well judged; expedient; well devised

409

polity

(particular form of) political organization; form of government of nation or state; Ex. student polity

410

polygamist

one who has more than one spouse at a time; CF. bigamy; CF. polyandry

411

polyglot

speaking several languages; multilingual; Ex. polyglot person/society; N.

412

pomposity

self-important behavior; acting like a stuffed shirt(pompous person); ADJ. pompous: self-important

413

ponderous

having great weight; weighty; unwieldy; lacking lightness; dull; Ex. ponderous body/style of writing

414

pontifical

pertaining to a bishop or pope; pompous or pretentious; CF. pontiff: pope; bishop

415

pore

study industriously; ponder; scrutinize; Ex. pore over the book; N.

416

porous

full of pores; like a sieve

417

interstice

narrow space between things

418

portend

foretell; presage; be a sign or warning of; N. portent: sign; omen; forewarning

419

soothsayer

one who foretells the future

420

portly

stout; corpulent

421

stout

rather fat; strong in body; sturdy; resolute; determined; strong in determination; Ex. stout stick/supporter

422

poseur

person who pretends to be sophisticated, elegant, etc., to impress others; person who poses; CF. pose

423

pose

assume a particular posture; put forward; present; affect a particular attitude (to impress others); Ex. pose a threat; N.

424

posterity

descendants; future generations; Ex. go down to posterity; CF. posterior, anterior

425

posthumous

after death (as of child born after father's death or book published after author's death); coming or occurring after one's death; Ex. posthumous fame/novel

426

postmortem

autopsy; ADJ: occurring after death; of a postmortem

427

postulate

self-evident truth; something assumed without proof; V: assume the truth of (as a basis of an argument)

428

posture

assume an affected pose; act artificially; N: pose; attitude

429

potable

suitable for drinking; drinkable

430

potent

powerful; convincing; persuasive; greatly influential

431

potentate

monarch; sovereign

432

potential

expressing possibility; latent; N: capacity for growth

433

potion

dose (of liquids); liquid dose

434

potpourri

heterogeneous mixture; medley; mixture of dried flower petals a pot (to give a pleasant smell to a room)

435

poultice

soothing application applied to sore and inflamed portions of the body

436

practicable

feasible

437

practical

based on experience; of or acquired through practice (rather than theory); useful; Ex. practical man

438

pragmatic

practical (as opposed to idealistic); concerned with practical worth or impact of something; Ex. pragmatic test of the skill

439

pragmatist

practical person; N. pragmatism: pragmatic way of dealing with things

440

prance

move about in a spirited manner (proudly and confidently)

441

prate

talk idly; speak foolishly; boast idly

442

prattle

talk idly; babble; N. CF. prate

443

idle

not working; not employed or busy; lazy; without purpose; useless; lacking substance; baseless; not based on truth; Ex. idle worker; Ex. talk idly; V.

444

preamble

introductory statement

445

precarious

unsafe; lacking in stability; uncertain; risky; Ex. precarious living

446

precedent

something preceding in time which may be used as an authority or guide for future action; V. precede; CF. unprecedented

447

precedent

preceding (in time, rank, etc.)

448

precept

practical rule guiding conduct; Ex. mother's precept

449

precipice

cliff; dangerous position; Ex. on the edge of the precipice

450

brink

edge (at the top of a cliff); Ex. on the brink of the Grand Canyon

451

precipitant

something that causes a substance in a chemical solution to separate out in solid form; OP. solvent

452

precipitate

hurl downward; throw headlong; hasten; cause to happen sooner; condense and fall as rain or snow; cause (a solid substance) to be separated from a solution; ADJ. hasty; rash; premature; sudden

453

precipitous

steep; overhasty; precipitate

454

pr\'ecis

abstract; concise summing up of main points; concise summary of a text

455

precise

exact

456

preclude

make impossible; prevent; exclude; eliminate

457

precocious

advanced in development; N. precocity

458

precursor

forerunner; predecessor

459

predator

predatory animal or bird; predatory person; creature that seizes and devours another animal; person who robs or exploits others; ADJ. predatory: living by preying on other organisms; plundering; N. predation

460

predecessor

former occupant of a post

461

predetermine

determine in advance; predestine; settle or decide beforehand; influence markedly

462

predicament

difficult situation; tricky or dangerous situation; dilemma

463

predilection

preference; partiality

464

predispose

give an inclination toward (in advance); make susceptible to; Ex. predispose people to certain cancer; N. predisposition

465

preeminent

outstanding; superior

466

preempt

prevent in advance; head off(forestall); forestall by acting first; appropriate for oneself before others; supplant; take the place of; displace; Ex. preempt any attempts; ADJ. preemptive

467

preen

make oneself tidy in appearance; feel self-satisfaction or pride; (of a bird) smooth or clean (feathers) with the beak; Ex. preen oneself on; CF. prune

468

prefatory

introductory; of a preface

469

prehensile

capable of grasping or holding (esp. by wrapping around); Ex. prehensile tails

470

prelate

church dignitary; priest of high position in the church (esp. bishop)

471

prelude

introduction; introductory performance or event; forerunner

472

premeditate

plan in advance; Ex. premeditated murder

473

premise

assumption; postulate; proposition upon which an argument is based

474

premonition

forewarning; presentiment; foreboding

475

premonitory

serving to warn

476

preponderance

superiority of power, quantity, etc.; V. preponderate: be greater in power, weight, or importance; ADJ. preponderant

477

preposterous

absurd; completely unreasonable; ridiculous

478

prerogative

privilege; unquestionable right; CF. ask before

479

presage

foretell; be a warning or sign of; N: presentiment; foreboding; omen

480

prescience

ability to foretell the future; knowledge of actions before they occur; ADJ. prescient

481

presentiment

premonition; foreboding; feeling something will happen; anticipatory fear

482

prestige

respect or admiration; impression produced by achievements or reputation; ADJ: causing admiration; ADJ. prestigious: having prestige

483

presumptuous

going beyond what is right; excessively forward; arrogant; taking liberties

484

presume

take for granted; assume; act overconfidently; take liberties; presume on/upon: take unfair advantage of (someone's kindness or connection); N. presumption

485

pretentious

ostentatious; showy; pompous; making unjustified claims; overambitious; Ex. pretentious films that claim to be art

486

pretend

feign; pretend to: claim to possess; make pretensions to; Ex. I don't pretend to much expertise; N. pretense

487

pretension

pretentiousness; claim (without foundation); Ex. I make no pretensions to skill as an artist.

488

preternatural

beyond what is normal in nature; supernatural; Ex. preternatural strength/forces

489

pretext

excuse

490

prevail

be widespread; triumph over; gain victory; prevail on: persuade; induce; Ex. Justice has prevailed; Ex. prevail on someone to do something

491

prevalent

widespread; generally accepted

492

prevaricate

lie; hide the truth (by equivocating)

493

prey

target of a hunt; victim; V: hunt and eat as prey; victimize; Ex. Cats prey on mice.

494

prim

proper to the point of affectation; very precise and formal; exceedingly proper

495

primogeniture

seniority by birth; state of being the first-born child; right of the eldest child (to inherit the entire property of one or both parents)

496

primordial

existing at the beginning (of time); rudimentary

497

primp

groom oneself with care; adorn oneself

498

pristine

unspoiled; remaining in a pure state; characteristic of earlier times; primitive; Ex. an old book in pristine condition

499

privation

lack of the basic necessities or comforts of life; hardship; want; CF. deprive

500

privy

secret; hidden; not public; made a participant in something secret; Ex. privy chamber government; Ex. be privy to a discussion; CF. private