Behaviour of Tumours Flashcards Preview

EMS - Mechanisms Of Disease > Behaviour of Tumours > Flashcards

Flashcards in Behaviour of Tumours Deck (12):
1

What is the difference between a local malignant tumour and a systemic disease?

Local disease - the tumour invades adjacent normal tissue.

Systemic disease - the tumour metastasises to distant sites and forms new tumour in these areas.

2

What contributes to motility and metastasis of tumour cells?

1) loss of cell to cell adhesion molecules (Cadherins)

2) Loss of cell to matric adhesion molecules (integrins)

3

What type of cells are lossely connected and able to migrate?

Mesenchymal

*in cancer, epithelial cells gain mesenchymal properties and can invade and migrate.

4

What is transcoelomic metastasis route?

across peritoneal, pleural, pericardial cavities or CSF.

5

What are the theories of patterns of metastasis?

1) Mechanical hypothesis (dictated by anatomy)
2) seed and soil hypothesis (seeds can only grow if they fall on congenial soil)

6

What is the difference between stage and grade?

Stage = how advanced is the tumour.

Grade = how aggressive is the tumour?

7

What is the TMN staging system?

Tumours are staged using TMN.
T = tumour
M = metastases
N = nodes

can be combined to give an overall stage for the tumour from 1 - 4.

8

What does N0 relate to in the stage of cancer?

N0 = no nodes
N1 = nodes on the same side involved
N2 = Greater node involement

9

what does M1 relate to in TNM staging of cancer?

M1 = distant metastases
M0 = no metastases

10

What is Dukes Staging for colorectal cancer?

A = invades into but not through bowel wall
B = invades through bowel wall but with no lymph node metastases
C = local lymph nodes involved
D = distant metastases

11

What is stage C in Dukes staging for colorectal cancer?

Local lymph nodes are involved!

A = invades into but not through bowel wall
B = invades through bowel wall but with no lymph node metastases
C = local lymph nodes involved
D = distant metastases

12

What is the 5 year prognosis of stage C of Dukes staging?

30% 5 year survival.

A = >90% 5 year survival
B = 70% 5 year survival
C = 30% 5 year survival
D = 5-10% 5 year survival