Flashcards in Characteristics of Tumours Deck (26):
Term given to the uncontrolled growth of cells, which can invade and spread to distant sites of the body.
Lesion resulting from the autonomous growth or relatively autonomous growth of cells that persists in the absence of the initiating stimulus.
Neoplams / tumour
Tumour of epithelial cells
tumour of connective tissue
tumour of lymphoid / haematopoietic organs
lymphomas / leukaemias
Name the 4 most common and fatal cancers?
40 Colon and rectum
What is the term given to "the extent that neoplastic cells resemble the corresponding normal parenchymal cells, morphologically and functionally"
What is the difference in differentiation between benign and malignant tumours?
Benign tumours are usually well differentiated. Mitoses are rare.
Malignant neoplasms have a wide range of parenchymal differentiation.
Neoplasms comprised of poorly differentiated cells are described as .....?
What are some of the morphical changes that we look to see in not well differentiated tissue?
- abnormal nuclear morphology
-loss of polarity
what is pleomorphism?
variation in size and shape of cells
What can we see in abnormal nuclear morphology?
-nuclei appear too large for the cell they are in
- variability of nuclear shape
-clumped chromatin distribution
-hyperchromatism (dark colour)
-abnormaly large nucleoli
What is the significance of Grade and a tumour
Grade tells you how well differentiated a tumour is.
Well differentiated = low grade (grade 1)
Moderately differentiated = intermediate (grade 2)
Poorly differentiated = high grade (grade 3)
What is the difference between grade and stage?
Grade is how well differentiated a tumour is.
Stage refers to how far along the disease you are - prognosis.
A tumour that has no capacity to infiltrate, invade or metastasise is ....
What types of tumours don't respect anatomical boundaries and penetrate organ surfaces and skin.
What is the term given to "spread of a tumour to sites physically discontinous with the primary tumour"
What are the pathways of metastasis?
How do carcinomas usually spread?
How do sarcomas spread?
Haematogenous spread ONLY
The first few lymph nodes into which a tumour drains are called ....
What is the name given to "connective tissue framework that neoplastic cells are embedded in"?
What does stroma contain?
1) cancer associated fibroblasts
3) Blood Vessels
4) Lymphocytic infiltrate
What type of reaction involves fibrous stroma formation due to induction of connective tissue fibroblast proliferation by growth factors from tumour cells
Desmoplastic reaction is when fibrous stroma formation occurs due to induction of connective tissue fibroblast proliferation by growth factors from the tumour cells.
What is the warburg effect?
The warburg effect is a clinical complication of tumours. It produces energy by high rate of glycolysis with fermentation of lactic acid.