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EMS - Mechanisms Of Disease > Intro to microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to microbiology Deck (28):
1

What are commensal microbiota?

microbial flora associated with the human body that can be beneficial.

2

What is Koch's Postulates?

criteria used to decide if a micro-organism caused a disease

3

What does Koch's postulates state?

Causative organism must:
-be isolated
-cultivated artificially
-typical symptoms of infection must result
- should be recoverable from individuals infected experimentaly

4

What is Koch's Postulates for genes?

Genes encode virulence factors.
-introduction of gene should transform strain into one that causes disease

5

What are the structural components of a virus?

1) have a nucleic acid core
2) protein coat
3) Enveloped or naked
3) DNA or RNA

6

A virus has a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein coat. What is the protein coat made up of?

Protein coat is made up of units called capsomeres.

7

All fungi are ...
a) eukaryotic
b) prokaryotic

All fungi are EUKARYOTES

8

What is the cell wall of fungi made of?

Chitin

9

Moulds are fungi that grow in mats of tiny filaments. What are the filaments and mats known as?

Filaments = hyphae
mats = mycelia

10

What is the role of septa in moulds?

Septa separate the mats of fungi into compartments

11

What is the name of unicellular fungi?

yeasts

12

What type of fungi is ringworm and athlete's foot?

mould

13

What is thrush caused by?

Candida Albicans

14

What type of cells are protists?
a) unicellular eukaryotes
b) unicellular prokarytoes

Protists are unicellular eukaryotes

15

What are the 4 classes of protista?

1) apicomplxa (formerly sporozoa)
2)flagellat protista
3)ciliate protista
4) amoebae

16

Give examples of diseases caused by protists

1) toxoplasmosis
2) amoebic meningitis
3) malaria
4) trypanosomiasis
5) leishmaniasis
6) amoebic dysentery

17

What protist can cause a foul smelling vaginal discharge?

Trichomonas vaginalis

18

What type of cell are bacteria?
a) eukaryotes
b) prokaryotes

prokaryotes

Bacteria lack a membrane bound nucleus.

19

What is the difference between gram positive and gram negative bacteria?

Gram positive:
-thick peptidoglycan wall
-stain violet / purple

Gram Negative :
-thin peptidoglycan wall
-stain red / pink

20

What is the function of a capsule (in bacteria)

Some bacteria are enclosed within a capsule.

This helps protect the bacterium (even inside phagocytes) so helps to prevent the bacteria from being killed.

21

Where do "coagulase negative" staphylococci live?

skin

22

What are endospores?

endospores are produced by bacteria. They are resistant so protect against heat and radiation.

23

What are the different routes of person to person infection?

1) airborne (inhilation of infetious droplets)
2)faecal-oral
3) sexually transmitted
4)direct inoculation
5)animals
6) objects

24

What diseases are spread via faecal-oral route?

-Typhoid
-cholera
-dysentery
-Hepatitis A
-poliomyelitis

25

What diseases are spread via animals?

-malaria (mosquitoes)
-salmonella enterica

26

What are fomites?

vectors of infection that are objects such as pens

27

In what diseases does an individual not need to encounter the live micro-organism but can get the disease due to exposure from the toxin?

1) tetanus
2) botulism
3)ergotism

28

What are the mechanisms by which bacteria cause diseaseʔ

1) produce structure which enable them to ATTACh to the surface at which they cause disease.

2)poduce toxins

3)produce aggressins