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Flashcards in Biochem Deck (187)
1

Glycogen storage diseases Very Poor Carbohydrate Metabolism

VON GIERKE glucose 6 phosphatase POMPES alpha 1 4 glucosidase CORI alpha 1 6 glucosidase MCARDLE glycogen phosphorylase

2

Glucose transporters not requiring insulin

GLUT 13 brain kidney placenta GLUT 2 liver pancreatic B cell SI Kidney

3

GLUT requiring insulin

GLUT 4 Heart Skeletal muscle Adipocytes

4

GLUT 1

RBC COLON Brain KidneyPlacenta

5

GLUT 3

Brain Kidney Placenta

6

GLUT 5

Small intestines

7

Location of glycolysis

cytoplasm

8

3 carbon end products of glycolysis

Pyruvate or Lactate

9

rate limiting step of glycolysis

PFK 1 from fructose 6 phosphate TO fructose 1 6 bisphosphate

10

3 irreversible steps of glycolysis

1 phosphorylation of glycose via GLUCOKINASE or HEXOKINASE. 2 phosphorylation of fructose 6 phosphate via PFK1. 3 formation of pyruvate via PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE.

11

No of ATP from substrate level phosphorylation in Glycolysis

4 ATP

12

No of ATP needed for glycolysis

2 ATP

13

ATP production in glycolysis using KINases ie phosphate transfer into ADP

1 3 biphosphoglycerate and PEP

14

NADH prodc in glycolysis

glycealdehyde 3 phosphate to 1 3 bisphosphoglycerate via a DEHYDROGENASE

15

Malate aspartate shittle liver kidney heart vs glycerol phosphate shuttle in brain and sk ms

Malate 1 NADH to 3 ATP via NADH e acceptor complex I while Glycerol 1 NADH to 2 ATP via FADH e acceptor in complex II

16

organs that are Strictly anaerobic glycolysis

RBC lens cornea medulla of kidney testes WBC

17

NET ATP yield from Glycolysis

Anaerobic 2 ATP. Aerobic ATPs ff NADG 4 or 6 with net ATP of 6 or 8 depending on shuttle used.

18

Function of 2 3 Bisphosphoglycerate

reduces Hgb affinity for O2 hence releasing it. Note fetal hgb has higher 2 3 biphosphoglycerate than mom

19

Arsenic poison competes with

1competes with phosphate as substrate for GLYCERALDEHYDE 3 P DEHYDROGENASE 2 binds lipoic acid so PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE wont work therefore no NADH is produced during glycolysis to go into ETC

20

MC enzyme defect in glycolysis

Pyruvate kinase deficiency presents as chronic hemolytic anemia

21

2 enzymed requiring 5 co enzymes

1 pyruvate dehydrogenase 2 Alpha ketogluterate Dehydrogenase of TCA

22

5 co enzymes of the divas Love Never Fails To Conquer

Lipoic acid Niacin riboFADin Thiamine Co enzyme A with B5

23

MCC congenital lactic acidosis

Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency X linked

24

Site of TCA

mitochondrial matrix EXCEPT succinate dehydrogenase aka Complex II in inner mitochondria

25

substrate of TCA

ACETYL COA fr pyruvate

26

UP above acid vs base

above pka. Acid is unprotonated with negative charge. Base is unprotonated with charge. Charged is water soluble. Uncharged is lipid soluble.

27

rate limiting step of TCA

isocitrate to alpha ketogluterate via isocitrate dehydrogenase

28

Steps in TCA Cindy is Kind So She Forgives More Often

Citrate Isocitrate Ketogluterate Succinyl Coa Succinate Fumarate Malate Oxaacetate

29

dehydrogenase always produces an

NADH

30

Citrate

fatty acid synthesis

31

succinyl coa

heme synthesis

32

malate

may be used for gluconeogenesis

33

TCA where NADH is produced

1 isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 alpha ketogluterate dehydrogenase 3 malate dehydrogenase

34

TCA where FADH is produced

succinate dehydrogenase

35

TCA where GTP is produced

succinate thioKINase

36

ATP yield fr TCA starting fr Acetyl Coa or Pyruvate

must multiply by 2 coz 2 acetyl coa entered TCA per glucose. acetyl coa 12 or pyruvate 15. nu shuttle needed coz inside mitochondria.

37

goal of gluconeogenesis

prevent hypoglycemia

38

site of gluconeogenesis

90 percent in LIVER. 10 percent in KIDNEY. Esrd prone to hypogly coz in fasting kidney does 40 percent of work.

39

Gluconeogenesis subtrate

pyruvate

40

rate limiting step in gluconeogenesis

fructose 1 6 bisphosphate to fructose 6 phosphate via Fructose 1 6 bisphosphatase

41

Cori cycle of Gluconeogenesis

lactate fr sk ms and rbc converted to GLUCOSE in liver and then given back

42

hexokinase or glucokinase in glycolysis is _____________________ in gluconeogenesis

glucose 6 phosphatase in ER

43

PFK 1 in glycolysis is ______________ in gluconeogenesis

fructose 1 6 bisphosphatase in CYTOSOL

44

pyruvate kinase in glycolysis is _______________ in gluconeogenesis

Pyruvate carboxylase in Mitochondria. Requires biotin and ATP. Activated by Acetyl coA.

45

co factor of carBoxylase

Biotin

46

home of glucose 6 phophate enzyme

liver and kidney. Recall gluconeogenesis ito. Wala sa muscle kaya me cori cycle.

47

ATP requirement for gluconeogenesis

4 atp from burning of fat ie beta oxydation.

48

gluconeogenesis produces NADH. ETOH metab also produces NADH shunting reaction away from gluconeogenesis and towards

1 pyruvate to lactate 2 OAA to malate 3 DHAP to glycerol 3 phosphate aka FA synthesis

49

storage of glycogen in

LIVER for export and MUSCLE for internal use

50

glycogen bond for elongation

alpha 1 to 4 glycosidic bond

51

glycogen bond for branching

alpha 1 to 6 glycosidic bond

52

shared enzyme gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis

glucose 6 phosphatase in ER

53

enzymes are DEPHOSPHORALATED in ______________ state

well fed

54

enzymes are PHOSPHORALATED in ______________ state

fasting

55

Gluconeogenesis. Enzyme used in Pyruvate TO Oxaloacetate and where

Pyruvate carboxylase in Mitochondria. Requires biotin and ATP. Activated by Acetyl coA.

56

Gluconeogenesis. Enzyme used in Oxaloacetate TO Phosphoenolyruvateand and where

PEP Carboxikinase in Cytosol. Requires GTP.

57

Inhibits by glucose 6 phosphate

Hexokinase

58

Disulfiram reaction secondary to accumulation of __________ via
reaction that is zero order kinetics

Acetaldehyde

Alcohol dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
ETOH-------------------> acetaldehyde -------------> acetate
NAD to NADH NAD to NADH

59

Functions of PTH 4

- Inc bone resorption of calcium and phosphate
- Inc kidney reabsorption of calcium in distal convoluted tubule
- Dec reabsorption of phosphate in proximal convoluted tubule
- Inc 1 25 OH2 D3 calcitriol production by stimulating kidney 1 alpha hydroxylase

60

Derivatives of phenylalanine


Thyroxine Melanin
^ ^ Vit C SAM
Phenylalanine -> tyrosine -> dopa ->dopamine-> NE ->Epi

61

Tryptophan derivatives


+ b6: Niacin -> NAD/NADP
Tryptophan
Serotonin -> melatonin

62

Derivative of Histidine

Histamine

63

Derivatives of Glycine

Glycine + b6 = porphyrin -> heme

64

Derivatives of Arginine

Creatinine
Urea
Nitric oxide

65

Derivatives of glutamate

1GABA from Glutamate + B6
2 glutathione

66

Characteristics of gluckokinase

1 not inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate unlike hexokinase
2 higher michaelis menten constant aka low affinity for glucose but with higher maximum reaction rate hence larger capacity than hexokinase once activated

67

Essential amino acids

PVT TIM haLL always argues never tyres

A for arginine, T is not for tyrosine

Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan

Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine

histidine - becomes essential in times of Stress
arginine
Leucine
Lysine

68

Inhibits by glucose 6 phosphate

Hexokinase

69

Disulfiram reaction secondary to accumulation of __________ via
reaction that is zero order kinetics

Acetaldehyde

Alcohol dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
ETOH-------------------> acetaldehyde -------------> acetate
NAD to NADH NAD to NADH

70

Functions of PTH 4

- Inc bone resorption of calcium and phosphate
- Inc kidney reabsorption of calcium in distal convoluted tubule
- Dec reabsorption of phosphate in proximal convoluted tubule
- Inc 1 25 OH2 D3 calcitriol production by stimulating kidney 1 alpha hydroxylase

71

Derivatives of phenylalanine


Thyroxine Melanin
^ ^ Vit C SAM
Phenylalanine -> tyrosine -> dopa ->dopamine-> NE ->Epi

72

Tryptophan derivatives


+ b6: Niacin -> NAD/NADP
Tryptophan
Serotonin -> melatonin

73

Derivative of Histidine

Histamine

74

Derivatives of Glycine

Glycine + b6 = porphyrin -> heme

75

Derivatives of Arginine

Creatinine
Urea
Nitric oxide

76

Derivatives of glutamate

1GABA from Glutamate + B6
2 glutathione

77

Characteristics of gluckokinase

1 not inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate unlike hexokinase
2 higher michaelis menten constant aka low affinity for glucose but with higher maximum reaction rate hence larger capacity than hexokinase once activated

78

Essential amino acids

PVT TIM haLL always argues never tyres

A for arginine, T is not for tyrosine

Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan

Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine

histidine - becomes essential in times of Stress
arginine
Leucine
Lysine

79

Inhibits by glucose 6 phosphate

Hexokinase

80

Disulfiram reaction secondary to accumulation of __________ via
reaction that is zero order kinetics

Acetaldehyde

Alcohol dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
ETOH-------------------> acetaldehyde -------------> acetate
NAD to NADH NAD to NADH

81

Functions of PTH 4

- Inc bone resorption of calcium and phosphate
- Inc kidney reabsorption of calcium in distal convoluted tubule
- Dec reabsorption of phosphate in proximal convoluted tubule
- Inc 1 25 OH2 D3 calcitriol production by stimulating kidney 1 alpha hydroxylase

82

Derivatives of phenylalanine


Thyroxine Melanin
^ ^ Vit C SAM
Phenylalanine -> tyrosine -> dopa ->dopamine-> NE ->Epi

83

Tryptophan derivatives


+ b6: Niacin -> NAD/NADP
Tryptophan
Serotonin -> melatonin

84

Derivative of Histidine

Histamine

85

Derivatives of Glycine

Glycine + b6 = porphyrin -> heme

86

Derivatives of Arginine

Creatinine
Urea
Nitric oxide

87

Derivatives of glutamate

1GABA from Glutamate + B6
2 glutathione

88

Characteristics of gluckokinase

1 not inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate unlike hexokinase
2 higher michaelis menten constant aka low affinity for glucose but with higher maximum reaction rate hence larger capacity than hexokinase once activated

89

Essential amino acids

PVT TIM haLL always argues never tyres

A for arginine, T is not for tyrosine

Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan

Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine

histidine - becomes essential in times of Stress
arginine
Leucine
Lysine

90

Inhibits by glucose 6 phosphate

Hexokinase

91

Disulfiram reaction secondary to accumulation of __________ via
reaction that is zero order kinetics

Acetaldehyde

Alcohol dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
ETOH-------------------> acetaldehyde -------------> acetate
NAD to NADH NAD to NADH

92

Functions of PTH 4

- Inc bone resorption of calcium and phosphate
- Inc kidney reabsorption of calcium in distal convoluted tubule
- Dec reabsorption of phosphate in proximal convoluted tubule
- Inc 1 25 OH2 D3 calcitriol production by stimulating kidney 1 alpha hydroxylase

93

Derivatives of phenylalanine


Thyroxine Melanin
^ ^ Vit C SAM
Phenylalanine -> tyrosine -> dopa ->dopamine-> NE ->Epi

94

Tryptophan derivatives


+ b6: Niacin -> NAD/NADP
Tryptophan
Serotonin -> melatonin

95

Derivative of Histidine

Histamine

96

Derivatives of Glycine

Glycine + b6 = porphyrin -> heme

97

Derivatives of Arginine

Creatinine
Urea
Nitric oxide

98

Derivatives of glutamate

1GABA from Glutamate + B6
2 glutathione

99

Characteristics of gluckokinase

1 not inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate unlike hexokinase
2 higher michaelis menten constant aka low affinity for glucose but with higher maximum reaction rate hence larger capacity than hexokinase once activated

100

Essential amino acids

PVT TIM haLL always argues never tyres

A for arginine, T is not for tyrosine

Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan

Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine

histidine - becomes essential in times of Stress
arginine
Leucine
Lysine

101

Inhibits by glucose 6 phosphate

Hexokinase

102

Disulfiram reaction secondary to accumulation of __________ via
reaction that is zero order kinetics

Acetaldehyde

Alcohol dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
ETOH-------------------> acetaldehyde -------------> acetate
NAD to NADH NAD to NADH

103

Functions of PTH 4

- Inc bone resorption of calcium and phosphate
- Inc kidney reabsorption of calcium in distal convoluted tubule
- Dec reabsorption of phosphate in proximal convoluted tubule
- Inc 1 25 OH2 D3 calcitriol production by stimulating kidney 1 alpha hydroxylase

104

Derivatives of phenylalanine


Thyroxine Melanin
^ ^ Vit C SAM
Phenylalanine -> tyrosine -> dopa ->dopamine-> NE ->Epi

105

Tryptophan derivatives


+ b6: Niacin -> NAD/NADP
Tryptophan
Serotonin -> melatonin

106

Derivative of Histidine

Histamine

107

Derivatives of Glycine

Glycine + b6 = porphyrin -> heme

108

Derivatives of Arginine

Creatinine
Urea
Nitric oxide

109

Derivatives of glutamate

1GABA from Glutamate + B6
2 glutathione

110

Characteristics of gluckokinase

1 not inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate unlike hexokinase
2 higher michaelis menten constant aka low affinity for glucose but with higher maximum reaction rate hence larger capacity than hexokinase once activated

111

Essential amino acids

PVT TIM haLL always argues never tyres

A for arginine, T is not for tyrosine

Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan

Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine

histidine - becomes essential in times of Stress
arginine
Leucine
Lysine

112

Inhibits by glucose 6 phosphate

Hexokinase

113

Disulfiram reaction secondary to accumulation of __________ via
reaction that is zero order kinetics

Acetaldehyde

Alcohol dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
ETOH-------------------> acetaldehyde -------------> acetate
NAD to NADH NAD to NADH

114

Functions of PTH 4

- Inc bone resorption of calcium and phosphate
- Inc kidney reabsorption of calcium in distal convoluted tubule
- Dec reabsorption of phosphate in proximal convoluted tubule
- Inc 1 25 OH2 D3 calcitriol production by stimulating kidney 1 alpha hydroxylase

115

Derivatives of phenylalanine


Thyroxine Melanin
^ ^ Vit C SAM
Phenylalanine -> tyrosine -> dopa ->dopamine-> NE ->Epi

116

Tryptophan derivatives


+ b6: Niacin -> NAD/NADP
Tryptophan
Serotonin -> melatonin

117

Derivative of Histidine

Histamine

118

Derivatives of Glycine

Glycine + b6 = porphyrin -> heme

119

Derivatives of Arginine

Creatinine
Urea
Nitric oxide

120

Derivatives of glutamate

1GABA from Glutamate + B6
2 glutathione

121

Characteristics of gluckokinase

1 not inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate unlike hexokinase
2 higher michaelis menten constant aka low affinity for glucose but with higher maximum reaction rate hence larger capacity than hexokinase once activated

122

Essential amino acids

PVT TIM haLL always argues never tyres

A for arginine, T is not for tyrosine

Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan

Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine

histidine - becomes essential in times of Stress
arginine
Leucine
Lysine

123

Inhibits by glucose 6 phosphate

Hexokinase

124

Disulfiram reaction secondary to accumulation of __________ via
reaction that is zero order kinetics

Acetaldehyde

Alcohol dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
ETOH-------------------> acetaldehyde -------------> acetate
NAD to NADH NAD to NADH

125

Functions of PTH 4

- Inc bone resorption of calcium and phosphate
- Inc kidney reabsorption of calcium in distal convoluted tubule
- Dec reabsorption of phosphate in proximal convoluted tubule
- Inc 1 25 OH2 D3 calcitriol production by stimulating kidney 1 alpha hydroxylase

126

Derivatives of phenylalanine


Thyroxine Melanin
BH4 ^ BH4 ^ B6 Vit C SAM
Phenylalanine -> tyrosine -> dopa ->dopamine-> NE ->Epi

127

Tryptophan derivatives


+ b6: Niacin -> NAD/NADP
Tryptophan
+ bh4: Serotonin -> melatonin

128

Derivative of Histidine

Histidine + b6 = Histamine

129

Derivatives of Glycine

Glycine + b6 = porphyrin -> heme

130

Derivatives of Arginine

Creatinine
Urea
Nitric oxide

131

Derivatives of glutamate

1 Glutamate + B6 = GABA
2 glutathione

132

Characteristics of gluckokinase

1 not inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate unlike hexokinase
2 higher michaelis menten constant aka low affinity for glucose but with higher maximum reaction rate hence larger capacity than hexokinase once activated

133

Essential amino acids

PVT TIM haLL always argues never tyres

A for arginine, T is not for tyrosine

Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan

Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine

histidine - becomes essential in times of Stress
arginine
Leucine
Lysine

134

Essential fatty acids

Lolinoleic acid
Linolenic acid

135

Agent that prevents oxygen from serving as the final electron acceptor in ETC

Cyanide

Binds cytochrome c aka complex IV therefore stops any further oxidative phosphorylation

136

ETC

Binds the stalk of ATP synthase and blocks re entry of protons into the mitochondrial matrix

Or

Directly inhibits the mitochondrial ATP synthase causing an increase proton gradient, stoping ATP synthesis.

Oligomycin

Stops further electron transport since no gradient, activity results in heat production instead of ATP.

Inhibits complex V

137

Directly inhibits electron transport in ETC

Complex 1 : Rotenone
Complex 3 : actimycin A
Complex 4 : cyanide, CO

138

Complex II of TCA in inner mitochondria is

Succinate dehydrogenase of Krebb's cycle

139

Universal electron transporters

Nicotinamide from niacin
1 NAD+ : catabolic processes
2 NADPH : anabolic process - steroid and FA synthesis
- anabolic processes/respi burst/P 459/glutathione reductase

Flavin nucleotides fr B2

140

Diphosphatidylglycerol eponym

It is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial membrane.

Cardiolipin

- only human glycerol phospholipid that is antigenic.
- it is recognized by antibodies raised against treponema pallium
- false positive RPR

141

Essential fatty acids

Lolinoleic acid
Linolenic acid

142

Agent that prevents oxygen from serving as the final electron acceptor in ETC

Cyanide

Binds cytochrome c aka complex IV therefore stops any further oxidative phosphorylation

143

ETC

Binds the stalk of ATP synthase and blocks re entry of protons into the mitochondrial matrix

Or

Directly inhibits the mitochondrial ATP synthase causing an increase proton gradient, stoping ATP synthesis.

Oligomycin

Stops further electron transport since no gradient, activity results in heat production instead of ATP.

Inhibits complex V

144

Directly inhibits electron transport in ETC

Complex 1 : Rotenone
Complex 3 : actimycin A
Complex 4 : cyanide, CO

145

Complex II of TCA in inner mitochondria is

Succinate dehydrogenase of Krebb's cycle

146

Universal electron transporters

Nicotinamide from niacin
1 NAD+ : catabolic processes
2 NADPH : anabolic process - steroid and FA synthesis
- anabolic processes/respi burst/P 459/glutathione reductase

Flavin nucleotides fr B2

147

Diphosphatidylglycerol eponym

It is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial membrane.

Cardiolipin

- only human glycerol phospholipid that is antigenic.
- it is recognized by antibodies raised against treponema pallium
- false positive RPR

148

Essential fatty acids

Lolinoleic acid
Linolenic acid

149

Agent that prevents oxygen from serving as the final electron acceptor in ETC

Cyanide

Binds cytochrome c aka complex IV therefore stops any further oxidative phosphorylation

150

ETC

Binds the stalk of ATP synthase and blocks re entry of protons into the mitochondrial matrix

Or

Directly inhibits the mitochondrial ATP synthase causing an increase proton gradient, stoping ATP synthesis.

Oligomycin

Stops further electron transport since no gradient, activity results in heat production instead of ATP.

Inhibits complex V

151

Directly inhibits electron transport in ETC

Complex 1 : Rotenone
Complex 3 : actimycin A
Complex 4 : cyanide, CO

152

Complex II of TCA in inner mitochondria is

Succinate dehydrogenase of Krebb's cycle

153

Universal electron transporters

Nicotinamide from niacin
1 NAD+ : catabolic processes
2 NADPH : anabolic process - steroid and FA synthesis
- anabolic processes/respi burst/P 459/glutathione reductase

Flavin nucleotides fr B2

154

Essential fatty acids

Lolinoleic acid
Linolenic acid

155

Agent that prevents oxygen from serving as the final electron acceptor in ETC

Cyanide

Binds cytochrome c aka complex IV therefore stops any further oxidative phosphorylation

156

ETC

Binds the stalk of ATP synthase and blocks re entry of protons into the mitochondrial matrix

Or

Directly inhibits the mitochondrial ATP synthase causing an increase proton gradient, stoping ATP synthesis.

Oligomycin

Stops further electron transport since no gradient, activity results in heat production instead of ATP.

Inhibits complex V

157

Directly inhibits electron transport in ETC

Complex 1 : Rotenone
Complex 3 : actimycin A
Complex 4 : cyanide, CO

158

Complex II of TCA in inner mitochondria is

Succinate dehydrogenase of Krebb's cycle

159

Universal electron transporters

Nicotinamide from niacin
1 NAD+ : catabolic processes
2 NADPH : anabolic process - steroid and FA synthesis
- anabolic processes/respi burst/P 459/glutathione reductase

Flavin nucleotides fr B2

160

Essential fatty acids

Lolinoleic acid
Linolenic acid

161

Agent that prevents oxygen from serving as the final electron acceptor in ETC

Cyanide

Binds cytochrome c aka complex IV therefore stops any further oxidative phosphorylation

162

ETC

Binds the stalk of ATP synthase and blocks re entry of protons into the mitochondrial matrix

Or

Directly inhibits the mitochondrial ATP synthase causing an increase proton gradient, stoping ATP synthesis.

Oligomycin

Stops further electron transport since no gradient, activity results in heat production instead of ATP.

Inhibits complex V

163

Directly inhibits electron transport in ETC

Complex 1 : Rotenone
Complex 3 : actimycin A
Complex 4 : cyanide, CO

164

Complex II of TCA in inner mitochondria is

Succinate dehydrogenase of Krebb's cycle

165

Universal electron transporters

Nicotinamide from niacin
1 NAD+ : catabolic processes
2 NADPH : anabolic process - steroid and FA synthesis
- anabolic processes/respi burst/P 459/glutathione reductase

Flavin nucleotides fr B2

166

Thalassemia

Low or high hemoglobin ?
Low or high MCV

Low hemoglobin, Low MCV

Note Spherocytosis has high MCHC due to spheroid shape

167

Enzyme deficient in Porphyria

Porphobilinogen deaminase
Aka
Uroporphyrinogen 1 synthase
Aka
Porphobilinogen synthase

With Accumulation of : 1 aminolevunilate 2 PBG

Note:
X linked siderobalstic anemia: deficient ALA synthase
Inhibits by lead: ALA dehydratase and ferrochelatase

168

Other name for MEN II syndrome

MEN 2A : Sipple's syndrome

- ret proto-oncogene
- MEN syndromes are AD inheritance pattern

MEN 1/ Wermer's: 3 Ps pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas
MEN 2A/Sipple's: 2 Ps parathyroid and pheochromocytoma,
1 M medullary thyroid Ca
MEN 2B : 1 P pheochromocytoma
2 M medullary thyroid Ca, Marfanoid habitués

169

Chromosome for retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma

Chromosome 13

Rb gene : 13

170

Hereditary Conjugated/Direct Hyperbilirubinemia

Conjugated
Dubin-Johnson/Discolored liver
Rotor's Syndrome

171

Arrests in human ova development at birth, after puberty

after birth: Meiosis I at PROPHASE I
after puberty: Meiosis II at METAPHASE II

172

Second messengers of G protein coupled receptors

kiss/kick/sick/sex: qiss,qiq,siq,sqs

q A1
i A2
s B1
s B2

q M1
i M2
q M3

s D1
i D2
q H1

s H2
q V1
s V2

173

N myc ?

C myc ?

L myc ?

N myc ? Neuroblastoma

C myc ? Burkitt's lymphoma

L myc ? Lung tumor

174

Define/Give examples
Transcription
Postranscription modification
Translation
Postranslational modification

TransCription: DNA to RNA
Postranscriptional modification: 5'capping, 3'polyadenyation,
alternative RNA splicing
TransLation: mRNA to protein
Postranslational modification: O glycosylation, N glycosylation,
Sulfation

175

Drug that inhibits function of micro tubules, kinesins, kinetochore, or centromeres act at what phase of mitosis

Pro metaphase

-PPMAT

176

Mutation of V2 receptors cause

Diabetes Insipidus

177

Thalassemia

Low or high hemoglobin ?
Low or high MCV

Low hemoglobin, Low MCV

Note Spherocytosis has high MCHC due to spheroid shape

178

Enzyme deficient in Porphyria

Porphobilinogen deaminase
Aka
Uroporphyrinogen 1 synthase
Aka
Porphobilinogen synthase

With Accumulation of : 1 aminolevunilate 2 PBG

Note:
X linked siderobalstic anemia: deficient ALA synthase
Inhibits by lead: ALA dehydratase and ferrochelatase

179

Other name for MEN II syndrome

MEN 2A : Sipple's syndrome

- ret proto-oncogene
- MEN syndromes are AD inheritance pattern

MEN 1/ Wermer's: 3 Ps pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas
MEN 2A/Sipple's: 2 Ps parathyroid and pheochromocytoma,
1 M medullary thyroid Ca
MEN 2B : 1 P pheochromocytoma
2 M medullary thyroid Ca, Marfanoid habitués

180

Chromosome for retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma

Chromosome 13

Rb gene : 13

181

Hereditary Conjugated/Direct Hyperbilirubinemia

Conjugated
Dubin-Johnson/Discolored liver
Rotor's Syndrome

182

Arrests in human ova development at birth, after puberty

after birth: Meiosis I at PROPHASE I
after puberty: Meiosis II at METAPHASE II

183

Second messengers of G protein coupled receptors

kiss/kick/sick/sex: qiss,qiq,siq,sqs

q A1
i A2
s B1
s B2

q M1
i M2
q M3

s D1
i D2
q H1

s H2
q V1
s V2

184

N myc ?

C myc ?

L myc ?

N myc ? Neuroblastoma

C myc ? Burkitt's lymphoma

L myc ? Lung tumor

185

Define/Give examples
Transcription
Postranscription modification
Translation
Postranslational modification

TransCription: DNA to RNA
Postranscriptional modification: 5'capping, 3'polyadenyation,
alternative RNA splicing
TransLation: mRNA to protein
Postranslational modification: O glycosylation, N glycosylation,
Sulfation

186

Drug that inhibits function of micro tubules, kinesins, kinetochore, or centromeres act at what phase of mitosis

Pro metaphase

-PPMAT

187

Mutation of V2 receptors cause

Diabetes Insipidus