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Flashcards in Biochemestry Test Deck (139):
1

Makes molecules/monomers

Atoms

2

Make macro monomers/polymers

Molecules / monomers

3

Make organelles and cells

Macromolecules/polymers

4

Smallest unit of life

Cells

5

Make tissues

Cells that work together

6

Make organs

Tissues

7

The # of protons in an atom

Element

8

Them most common elements in living things

Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorus
Sulfur

9

Trace elements

Elements we need in small amounts

10

Carbon atoms

Can bond 4 other atoms
For short strong bonds
Can make double bonds
Can make long chains and rings

11

Which is stronger cabin chains or rings

Chains

12

Monomers

Single molecules that makeup all living things

13

Monosaccharide

Single sugars

14

Glycerol

Alcohol used to connect things

15

Fatty acids

Make fats and oils

16

Amino acids

Make proteins

17

Nucleotides

Found is nucleus
Make DNA and RNA

18

Monosaccharides elements

Type of carbohydrate
Made only carbon hydrogen and oxygen
Carbon/water

19

Examples of monosaccharides

Glucose-made by photosynthesis
Fructose-fruit sugar

20

Disaccharide

2 monosaccharides bonded together

21

Example of disaccharide

Sucrose- table sugar

22

Polysaccharide

Many monosaccharides bonded together

23

Glycerol(alcohol)

3 bonded monomers

24

Triglyceride

Glycerol bonded to 3 fatty acids

25

Fatty acid made of

Acid followed by a hydrocarbon chain
(Chain of hydrogen and oxygen)

26

Fatty acid-water

Hydrophobic

27

Saturated fatty acids

Straight chains

28

Unsaturated fatty acids

Bent chains
Rings

29

Amino acids made of

1Carbon
1 hydrogen
An amino group nh3
An acid (Carbon oxygen oxygen hydrogen)
An r group (random)

30

How many different R groups

20

31

How many amino acids

20

32

Are amino acids important

Some are essential
You can't just make them you need to incorporate them in your diet

33

Nucleotides made of

One 5carbon sugar
Phosphate
Nitrogen containing base

34

5 different nitrogen bases

Guanine
Cytosine
Adenine
Thymine
Uracil

35

DNA nitrogen bases

Guanine
Thymine
Cytosine
Adenine

36

RNA bases

Uracil

37

DNA bases end in

Ine

38

Two different 5 Carbon sugars are

Ribose in RNA (OH)
Deoxyribose in DNA (H)

39

Largest monomer

Nucleotides
Largest monomer actually includes monosaccharide

40

Phosphate made of

Phosphate and oxygen

41

Characteristics of phosphate

Hydrophilic
Phosphate part likes water

42

Macromolecules this monomer can make

Phospholipid

43

Condensation dehydration rxn

Remove water (in form of h from one molecule and OH from another)
In order to stick molecules together

44

Polymers/macromolecules

Monomers bordered together to make polymers
Chemical reactions that bond monomers together is condensation dehydration rxn

45

5 macro monomers

Polysaccharides
Lipids
Phospholipids
Proteins
Nucleic acids

46

Polysaccharides made up of

Made up of MANY single sugars
Carbohydrates

47

Polysaccharides examples

Starch - how plants store glucose
Glycogen-how animals store glucose
Cellulose- makes plant cell walls and is out fiber in our diet (fiber is indigestible)
All are made of chains of glucose

48

Lipids made up of

Fatty acids and glycerol

49

Lipids-water

Hydrophobic

50

Lipid examples

Fats- solid at room temp. (Saturated fatty acid) stored energy in animals

Oils- liquid at room temp. (Unsaturated fatty acid) stored energy in plants

Waxes- used to water proof

Steroids- hormones help with homeostasis

51

Phospholipids made of

Glycerol
2 fatty acids
1 phosphate

52

Phospholipids -water

Phosphate head hydrophilic
Hydrocarbon tail
Hydrophobic

53

Phospholipids example

Cell membrane

54

Proteins made of

Chains of amino acids

55

Protein quality

3D shape
Most muscle is protein
Most enzymes are proteins

56

Enzymes

Catalyze chemical reactions make the reaction in a cell run fast enough to stay alive

57

Nucleic acid made of

Chains of nucleotides

58

Examples

RNA
DNA
Chromosomes

59

If ribose is the sugar

RNA ( ribonucleic acid)
Takes directions from nucleus out to cell
Little copies / messages

60

If deoxyribose is the sugar

DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acid)
Code stores all directions for how to run the cell (stays in nucleus)

61

Hydrolysis reaction

Upswing water to break 2 molecules apart put water in firm of H and OH back in

62

Example of monosaccharides

Glucose
Fructose

63

Monosaccharides can make this macromolecules

Polysaccharides

64

Makes atoms

Sub atomic particles

65

Glycerol made of

Hydrocarbon chain

66

Glycerol characteristics

Alcohol
Bond 3 triglyceride

67

Glycerol can make this macromolecule

Phosolipids
Lipids

68

Fatty acids made up of

Hydrocarbon chain
Hydrogen

69

Fatty acid characteristics

Hydrophobic
Straight saturated
Bent unsaturated

70

Fatty acids make macromolecules

Phosolipids
Lipids

71

Nucleotides made of

One 5carbon sugar
Phosphate
Nitrogen containing base

72

Nucleotides example

DNA
RNA

73

Nucleotides types of bases

Guanine
Cytosine
Adenine
Thymine
Uracil

74

Nucleotides make what macromolecules

Nucleic acids

75

Amino acids made of

1 Carbon
A hydrogen
Amino group NH3
Acid COOH
R group

76

Characteristic of amino acids

20 amino acids
Needed in diet

77

Amino acids make what macromolecules

Proteins

78

Biotic

Living

79

Abiotic

Not living

80

Organic

Part of or produced by living thing

81

Inorganic

Not and never was part of living thing

82

Homeostasis

Some unchanging internal environment

83

Stimulus

What causes response

84

Trace elements

Element we need in very small amounts

85

Monomer

Single molecule that make up all living things

86

Disaccharide

2 monosaccharides bonded together

87

Hydrocarbon

Hydrogen and Carbon chain

88

Carbohydrate

Only Carbon hydrogen and oxygen

89

Hydrophilic

Like water

90

Hydrophobic

Fear of water

91

Carboxylate group



C"o
-oh Acid

92

Amino group

NH3

93

R group

Random
Determines which of the 20 amino acids it is

94

Catalyst

Something that sparks chemical rxn
Speed up

95

Enzyme

Proteins that catalyze chemical rxn

96

Substrate

The reactants that an enzyme binds to

97

Active site

The part of an enzyme that binds to the substrate

98

Coenzyme

Molecule that helps enzyme

99

Inhibitor

Slow or stop enzymes

100

Essential amino acids

Need in diet
Can't make
Need to live

101

Characteristics of living things

Cells
Homeostasis
Obtain and use energy
Growth
Reproduction
Responds

102

Characteristics of living

CELLS

DNA
WATER

103

Characteristics of living

Homeostasis

Same unchanging internal environment

104

Characteristics of living

Obtain and use energy

Eat
Photosynthesis
Breath (gas exchange)

105

Characteristics of living
Respond

Respond to stimuli in environment

106

Action

Response

107

Redi's experiment

Disproves maggots come from rotten meat
Spontaneous generation
1668

108

Spontaneous generation

Life created from no living materials

109

Pasteur's experiment

Disproved microorganism come from air
Tubes
Spontaneous generation
1850

110

Hooke's experiment

First cell observed
Dead cork cells
Used light microscope
1665

111

Van Leeuwenhoek's

1664
Observed single called organisms in pond water

112

Cell theory

All organisms are made of cells
Cells come from other cells
A single cell is the smallest unit of life

113

Levels of organization

Sub atomic particles put together to make atoms
Atoms out together to make molecules (monomers)
Monomers out together make organelles and cell parts
Organelles and cell parts out together make cells (smallest unit of life)

114

Most common elements in living things

Oxygen
Nitrogen
Hydrogen
Sulfur
Phosphorus

115

Why Carbon forms backbone of all organic polymers

Can bond 4 other atoms
Short strong bonds
Double bonds
Long chains and rings

116

Which monomers and macro monomers are carbohydrates

Monosaccharides
Glycerol
Polysaccharides

117

Primary structure of proteins

Chain of amino acids

118

Secondary structure of proteins

Fold of amino acids
Chains of amino acids folded over
Held together by weak hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonds break if the get to hot

119

Tertiary structures of proteins

3D shape formed

120

Denatured

Change of 3D structure
Do to heat breaking hydrogen bonds

121

Enzymes are specific

Only do one kind of job with certain processions

122

Rate of reaction

Concentration of enzymes
Temperature
PH to high or to low
Ion concentration to high or to low

123

Concentration of enzymes

⬆️concentration ⬆️rate

124

Temperature

⬆️temperature ⬆️rate
Unless
To hot then denaturalization occurs

125

PH

Ph to high or to low rate⬇️

126

Ion concentration

Ion concentration to high or to low rate⬇️

127

Homeostasis examples

Solute concentration
Ion concentration (electro lights)
Ph
Temperature
Makes sure enzymes can work fast enough

128

Why is the reaction that puts two monosaccharides together called dehydration condensation reaction

They are called this because water is removed

129

Why is the reaction that takes disaccharides apart called hydrolysis reaction

Because a water molecule is broken in the process

130

Glycogen

Animal starch
Animals store glucose

131

What is glycogen made of

Glucose

132

What is cellulose made of

Straight chain glucose molecules

133

What are fats made out of

Fatty acid and glycerol

134

Hydrocarbon

Hydrogen and Carbon

135

Why are triglycerides(fats) not attracted to water

Hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail

136

How is phospholipids different from other lipids

Instead of 3 fatty acid it uses 2 and a phosphate

137

What part of phospholipids is hydrophobic

Hydrocarbon tail

138

What part of a phospholipid is hydrophilic

Phosphate

139

What are waxes

A long chain alcohol and a long chain fatty acid