Animals Flashcards Preview

Block Science > Animals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Animals Deck (64):
1

Animals

Eukaryotic, multicellular, motile, heterotrophic organisms

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How many animals are invertebrates and vertebrates

95% invertebrates
5% vertebrates

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Herbivore

Eats plants

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Carnivore

Eats animals

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Omnivore

Eats plants and animals

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Detritivore

Feeds on decaying organic material

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Filter feeders

Aquatic animals that strain food from water

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Parasite

Lives in or on another organism (symbiotic relationship)

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Respiration

Take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide
Lungs, gills, through skin, simple diffusion

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Circulation

Very small animals rely on diffusion
Large animals have circulatory systems

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Difference between open and closed circulation

Open no blood vessels
Closed blood vessels and veins

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Excretion

Primary waste product is ammonia
Liquid waste

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Response

Receptor cells= sound, light, external stimuli
Nerve cells= nervous system

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Movement

Most animals are motile (can move) in one stage of their life

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Movement: muscles work with a what

Skeleton

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Sexual reproduction

Most reproduce sexually= genetic diversity

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Asexual reproduction

Many invertebrates can also reproduce asexually= to increase their numbers rapidly

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Cell specialization and levels of organization

Cells-> tissues-> organs-> organ systems-> organisms

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Zygote

Fertilized egg

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Blastula

A hollow ball of cells

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Gastula

The blastula folds in creating this opening

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Protostome

Mouth is formed from opening in Gastula

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Anus

Opening for solid waste removal from digestive track

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Cephalization

An anterior concentration of sense organs
To have a head for directional movement

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What are Germ layers

The cells of most animal embryos differentiate into the three layers called germ layers

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The germ layers

Endoderm
Mesoderm
Ectoderm

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Endoderm

Inner most
Develops into the lining of the digestive track and respiratory track

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Mesoderm

Middle
Muscle, circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systems

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Ectoderm

Outermost
Sense organs, nerves, outer layer of skin

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A coelom

A fluid filled cavity between the alimentary canal and the body wall

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Acoelomate

No coelomic cavity exists

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Pseudocoelomate

A coelom exists but it is lined by mesoderm only on the body wall not around the gut

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Coelomate (eucoelmate or true coelom)

The coelom is lined both on the inside of the body wall and around the gut by the mesoderm. With true coelom also have mesunteries, which suspend the body organs within the coelom

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Body symmetry

The body plan of an animal, how it's body parts are arranged

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Asymmetry

No pattern
Corals and sponges

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Radical symmetry

Shaped like wheel
Star fish, hydra, jelly fish

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Bilateral symmetry

Has right and left side (humans insects and cats)

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What happens to cephalization if animals are more complex

The more complex the animals become the more pronounced their cephalization

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Anterior

Toward the head

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Posterior

Toward the tail

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Dorsal

Back side

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Ventral

Belly side

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Segmentation

Advanced animals have body segments and specialization of tissue.
Ex humans with ribs and spine

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Porifera

Ex sponges
Milestone: multicellular

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Cnidaria

Ex jellyfish, hydria, coral
Milestone:tissue

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Platyhelminthes

Ex flat worm
Milestone bilateral symmetry

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Nematoda

Ex round worms
Milestone pseudocoelom

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Mollusca

Ex clams squids snails
Milestone coelom

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Annalida

Ex earthworms and leeches
Milestone segmentation

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Arthropoda

Ex insects spiders crecstations
Milestone jointed appendages

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Echinodermata

Ex starfish
Milestone deuterosomes

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Chordata

Ex vertebrates
Milestone notochord

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Domain bacteria

Promaryotes with cell walls that contain peptidoglycan

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Peptidedohlycan

A polymer with two sugars alternating in the chain

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Domain archea

More ancient than bacteria
Prokaryotes whose cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan
Extreme phillies

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Domain eukarya

Cells that have a membrane bound nucleus and organelles
Kingdom Protista, fungi, plantae, animal is

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Kingdom Protista

Eukaryotic, unicellular, colonial, or multicellular no organs

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Plant like Protista

Algae

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Protista Protozoan a

Heterotrophs

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Protista fungi like

Slime mold

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Eugenoids Protista

Plant and animal like Protista
Photosynthetic

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Kingdom fungi

Unicellular or multicellular
Heterotrophic, don't move
Have cell walls made of chitin

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Kingdom plantae

Cellulose cell walls contain Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll), have tissues

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Kingdom anamalia

Heterotrophic, multicellular, no cell walls, most with tissues organs organ systems