Unit One Exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit One Exam Deck (60):
1

What is he unit for mass

Kilograms

2

What is the unit for volume

Liters

3

What is the unit for distance

Meters

4

What are the subatomic particles that make up an atom

Protons, neutrons, and electrons

5

Proton mass

1 amu

6

Neutron mass

1 amu

7

Electron mass

0 amu

8

What happens if a proton moves from an atom

Element changes

9

What happens if a neutron moves from an atom

Becomes isotope

10

What happens if an electron moves from an atom

Becomes ion

11

What force holds the nucleus of an atom together

Strong nuclear force

12

What takes up the most space in an atom

Nothing, the majority of an atom is empty space

13

What is the atomic number and what happens if the atomic number changes

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, and the element will change if the number of protons change

14

Atomic mass

The average number of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus of an atom

15

What are the scientific method steps

Question
Background research
Hypothesis
Experiment
Results
Conclusion
Publish

16

9. What is atomic mass?

The average number of protons and neutrons inside the nucleus of an atom

17

10. What is mass number?

Mass number is the specific mass (# of protons and neutrons) for one atom of an element…usually an isotope

18

11. What is the difference between atomic mass and mass number? When are mass numbers used?

Atomic mass is the average mass of all atoms of an element…found on PT
mass number is a specific mass for one specific atom of an element…used to show an isotope

19

13. Compare and Contrast the following: Neutral atom, isotope, ion.

Neutral atoms have the same number of protons and electrons.
Isotopes have a different number of neutrons than protons.
Ions have more or less electrons than protons.

20

14. What are valence electrons and why are they important?


They are in the outer shell of an atom. They are important because they determine what the element will bond to. (chemical properties)

21

15. How many electrons are in
F -1

10

22

How many electrons are in
Ca +2

18

23

How many electrons are in
O-2

10

24

How many electrons are in
K +1

18

25

How many electrons are in
Li+1

2

26

How many electrons are in
S-2

18

27

How many electrons are in
N-3

10

28

16. What is an isotope?

More neutrons than protons in nucleus.

29

How do you write the name of an isotope?

Carbon-14, Uranium-238, Nitrogen-15, the number after element name tells you the mass number (specific mass for that atom)

30

17. What are the numbers of protons and neutrons in the following isotopes:
carbon-13
uranium-235
Nitrogen-15
hydrogen-3

Carbon-13 (6 protons, 7 neutrons)
Uranium- 235 (92 Protons, 143 neutrons)
Nitrogen-15 (7 protons, 8 neutrons)
Hydrogen-3 (1 proton, 2 neutrons)

31

18. What are the rows on the periodic table called? What do they tell you about the elements in that row?

Periods, they tell you how many shells an atom of that element has.

32

19. What are the columns on the periodic table called? What do elements in the same column have in common?

Groups, they have the same number of valence electrons

33

21. How can you determine the number of valence electrons for each element?

Oxidation #

34

22. What group of elements are considered stable? How many e- do they have in their valence shell?

Noble gases, 8 valence electrons

35

23. What 2 groups are the most reactive? Why is this?

Alkali metals and halogens, they are one valence electron away from becoming stable

36

24. What are the 2 periodic trends?

Electronegativity (ionization energy) and atomic radius

37

25. What is atomic radius?

The size of an atoms electron cloud

38

26. What is electronegativity?

How strongly an atom attracts an electron

39

28. How can you tell where the metals and non-metals are on the PT?

Metals are to the left of the staircase, non-metals are to the right

40

29. Are most elements metals or non-metals?

metals

41

30. What does an oxidation number tell you?

It tells you the charge of the ion formed by that element. It also tells you how many electrons are added or lost. +1 +2 +3 ±4 -3 -2 -1 0

42

31. Compare ionic and covalent bonds. Include what electrons do and types of elements involved.

Ionic are between metals and non-metals and electrons are transferred.
Covalent bonds are between non-metals and non-metals and electrons are shared.

43

32. What is a cation and anion? What type of bond are they involved in?

Cation is a positive ion
Anion is a negative ion
Involved in ionic bonds…metal becomes cation, non-metal becomes anion

44

33. Describe how metals and non-metals become ions in ionic bonds.

Metals lose electrons and become positive, non-metals gain electrons and become negative

45

34. What are the rules for naming ionic compounds?

Metal goes first, add “ide” to end of the non-metal
Ex. Sodium Chloride

46

35. What are the rules for naming ionic compounds that involve a transition metal?

If one element is a transition metal you write the name of the metal followed by a roman numeral that tells the charge of the metal atom. Then write the name of the anion with ide on the end, or the name of the polyatomic ion.

47

What are the steps in the scientific method

Question
Background research
Hypothesis
Experiment
Results
Conclusion
Publish

48

Label transition metals, metals, non metals, alkali earth metals, halogens, alkali metals, Nobel gases, hydrogen , and oxidation numbers

See chart

49

36, what type of bond is this
P2S3

Covalent

50

Name the compound
MgCl2
Also, ionic or covalent

Magnesium chloride and it is ionic

51

Name IrBr3
Is the charge cation or anion

Iridium (Roman numeral three) bromide

52

What type of bond would hydrogen and nitrogen form?

Covalent

53

What type of bond would hydrogen and oxygen make

Covalent

54

What is the difference between elements and compounds

Elements are all one type of atom
Compounds are two or more elements bonded together

55

What is a molecule

Molecule is more than one atom bonded together
H2O, NaCl

56

What is a mixture

Two elements or compounds that are not chemically bonded together
N and O

57

Give examples of physical changes

Water changing state, a piece of paper being crumpled, butter melting

58

What are some indicators that a physical change has occurred

Object changed shape, no new compound or element created, reversible, no new properties( color)

59

What are examples of chemical change

Anything burning or rusting

60

What are some indicators that a chemical change has occurred

A new substance is created, color changes, odor, bubbles, new molecular structure, atoms rearranged, bonds broken