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Flashcards in Fission And Fusion Deck (41):
1

What is gamma radiation

High energy electromagnetic waves (pure energy, no mass, no particle)

2

When does gamma radiation occur

When it is given off by the sun and by nuclear reactions

3

What is beta particle and what is it made of

A beta particle is high energy electron

4

When does a beta particle occur

It occurs when an atom undergoes beta decay

5

What happens to create a beta particle

Beta particles are created when a neutron converts itself into a proton by spitting out an electron

6

What is an alpha particle made of

Two protons and two neutrons l.

7

When does an alpha particle occur

It occurs in alpha decay when there are too many protons in a nucleus and the electromagnetic repulsion pushes some of them out of the nucleus

8

What type of radiation had the greatest penetrating ability

Gamma radiation

9

What type of radiation has the least penetrating ability

Alpha

10

If an atom of uranium ( u-238) loses an alpha particle what will happen to the mass and what element will form

Mass stays the same 234 and it turns into thorium

11

If an atom of uranium ( u-238) loses a beta particle what will happen to the mass and what will it turn into

The mass stays the same, 234 and turns into Neptunium

12

If an atom of uranium ( u-238) loses an alpha particle what mass of radioactive particle forms

4

13

If an atom of uranium ( u-238) loses an alpha particle what charge of the radioactive particle forms

Plus 2

14

If an atom of uranium ( u-238) loses a beta particle what mass of radioactive particle forms

1/1800 amu

15

If an atom of uranium ( u-238) loses a beta particle what charge off the radioactive particle is formed

Negative one

16

If an atom of uranium ( u-238) loses gamma then what mass of the radioactive particle is formed

0

17

If an atom of uranium ( u-238) loses gamma then what charge of the radioactive particle is formed

0

18

When inside your body what type of radioactive particle is the most dangerous and why

Alpha particles because they have a lot of mass and can hit your tissue ( in lungs and stomach) before they turn into helium

19

What is a half life and what is its units

Half life is the amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms to decay ( give off radiation) and then unit is seconds minutes days months years

20

What is more radioactive a substance with a small half life or a big half life and why

Small half life because it gives off more radioactive particles per second. It shoots out radiation faster so it decays faster

21

What is transmutation

When an atom is mutated into a different element by giving off alpha or beta radiation

22

Explain the process of nuclear fission, and what is produced

Occurs when a large unstable atom is hit by a neutron that makes it split into two smaller atoms. The two smaller atoms are radioactive waste, gamma radiation and energy is produced

23

What is chain reaction

When neutrons from fissioning of one atom cause other atoms to split, spreading and growing the reaction

24

What must be present for chain reaction to occur

Chain reactions can happen if you hear a high concentration of fissionable uranium, much higher concentration than found in nature called enriched uranium

25

What is fissionable uranium

U-235 to

26

What is enriched uranium

Much higher concentrations of fissionable uranium than found in nature

27

In a nuclear reactor what controls the reaction

Control rods, they absorb the neutrons given off by the fission and it stops and slows the reaction

28

What are the pros of nuclear fission

No air pollution at all

29

What are the cons of nuclear fission

Run out of uranium
Radioactive nuclear waste is made
Possible melt down spreading radioactive material into environment
Mining uranium releases radioactive dust into environment

30

How is energy produced Ina fission reaction

When uranium atom splits a tiny bit of mass from each nucleon is converted into energy

31

How is nuclear energy transformed into electrical energy into a nuclear reactor

Heat from the splitting of atoms is absorbed by water, turning into steam and then steam turns a turbine/ generator

32

Explain the process of nuclear fusion

Two small atoms collide and fuse together into one large atom, needs very high temps and gives off lots of energy. No radioactive waste just helium

33

What must be present in order for a fusion reaction to occur

Very high temps and small atoms like hydrogen

34

What are the pros associated with fusion reactions

No pollution
Produces lots of energy
Lots of fuel available (H)

35

What are the cons of fussion reactions

We cannot do it efficiently yet
It takes more energy to do fission than get out of it

36

Where does fussion occur naturally

The sun

37

What health problems can be caused by the radioactive wave leftover from fission

Cancer, birth defects, shortened life span

38

What types of radiation cause these health problems

Alpha if it is inside your body because you swallowed radioactive atoms
Beta can harm your skin and surface tissues
Gamma can harm any part of your body because it penetrates all the way through

39

What are the major sources of the radiation we encounter

Solar radiation from the sun, radiation from the center of the earth

40

Alpha decay

A piece of nucleus breaks off

41

Beta decay

An electron breaks free