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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (80):
1

What are the characteristics of life

Cells
•Organization
•Grows and develops
•Reproduces
•Responds to stimuli
•Requires energy
•Maintains homeostasis
•Adapts

2

What is an ion

Charged atom with different number of electron

3

How is a positive ion formed

Lose electrons

4

How is a negative ion formed

Gain electrons

5

Ionic bond

Metal + non metal
Dot and arrow diagram

6

Covalent bond

Non metal and non metal
Bubble diagram

7

Metallic bond

Metal and metal

8

What is a compound

Two or more elements chemically combined

9

What is a mixture

Two or more elements not chemically combined

10

Ph measures what

Concentration of hydrogen ions

11

What is a neutralization reaction

Acid and base react to form salt and water

12

What is solute

Solid being dissolved

13

What is a solvent

Liquid. What something is being dissolved in

14

What makes an organic compound

Carbon and hydrogen

15

What is a monomer

Subunit of polymer

16

What is a polymer

Chain of monomers

17

What is a macromolecule

Large molecule composed of monomers

18

What is the monomer for carbohydrates

Monosaccharides

19

What is the monomer for proteins

Amino acid

20

What is the monomer for nucleic acid

Nucleotides

21

What are the parts of lipids

Phosphate head polar with fatty acid tail non polar

22

What is the difference between polar and non polar

Polar water loving
Non polar doesn't like water

23

What factors affect enzyme action

Temperature
PH
Concentration

24

What is a substrate

Substance Binds to enzyme

25

What is the active site of an enzyme

Where substrate binds

26

What are the three points of cell theory

All cells are made of existing ones
Cells are basic unit of life
All living things are composed of cells

27

Eukaryotes

Larger more complex cells
Has nucleus and organelles
Algae yeast animals plants fungi protist

28

Prokaryote

No nucleus, lacks nuclei
Lack membrane bound organelle
Bacteria

29

Cell organelles and functions

Other notecards

30

Why is the phospholipid bilayer called a fluid mosaic model

Not rigid, has cholesterol and stays flexible

31

What is selectively permeable and what structure is it

Only certain things get through
Cell membrane

32

Layers of organization in a multicellular organisms

Cell->
Tissue->
Organ->
System->
Organism

33

Tissue

Made up of cells working together

34

Organ

Made up of tissues working together

35

What is the difference between active and passive transport

Active uses energy
Passive doesn't

36

Plasmolysis

Cell loses too much water and shrivels

37

Lysis

Animal cell swells up to the point where it pops

38

Turgor pressure

Water pressure on plant

39

Concentration gradient

The difference in concentration of molecules across a space

40

Osmosis

Movement of water from high to low

41

Diffusion

Movement of molecules from High to low

42

Facilitated diffusion

Diffusion assisted by specific proteins

43

Where does water move

Towards hypertonic

44

Hypertonic

More solute than solvent

45

Isotonic

Equal on both sides

46

Hypotonic

Less solute than solvent

47

Movement against concentration gradient

Active

48

Endocytosis

Bring things into cell using energetic

49

Exocytosis

Getting things out using energy

50

Phagocytosis

Food into using energy

51

Pinocytosis

Liquid into using energy

52

Where does photosynthesis take place

Chloroplast

53

Photosynthesis formula

6CO2 + 6H2O--> C6H12O6

54

Aerobic vs. anaerobic

Aerobic: glycolysis krens cycle electron (oxygen)
Anaerobic: glycolysis, fermentation (no oxygen)

55

Another name for anaerobic

Fermentation

56

Where does fermentation happen

Cytoplasm

57

What is glucose splitting and where does it take place

Glycolysis and cytoplasm

58

Mitosis

Look over other notecards

59

What is cancer

Uncontrolled mitosis

60

What causes cancer

Radiation, smoking

61

What types of cells go through mitosis

Somatic

62

How many divisions take place in mitosis

One

63

How many cells do you have at the end of mitosis

Two j

64

Are the parent cells haploid of diploid

Diploid (all chromosomes)

65

Are daughter cells haploid of diploid

Diploid

66

Are daughter cells same as the parent cells

Yes

67

DNA replication

Look at other notecards

68

Why does DNA replication take place

Repair, growth, clone

69

What is central dogma

Nucleotides- DNA- mRNA- proteins- body structure

70

Transcription and translation notes

Review them

71

DNA location role and shape

Nucleus
Control center
Double helix

72

mRNA location role and shape

Nucleus and cytoplasm
Carrie info from DNA, imprint
Single stranded

73

tRNA location role and shape

Cytoplasm
Carries amino acid to ribosome
Clover/ tooth shape

74

rRNA location role and shape

Ribosome/ cytoplasm/ RE
Translation makes proteins
O/o

75

Four important enzymes

Helicase
DNA polymerase
Ligase
RNA polymerase

76

Helicase process involved in and role

Transcription and DNA rep
Unzips and breaks hydrogen bonds between bases

77

DNA polymerase process involved in and role

DNA rep
Hooks sugars and phosphates together (covalent)

78

Ligase process involved in and role

DNA rep (lagging strand)
Hooks the okazakis together

79

RNA polymerase process involved in and role

Transcription
Adds nucleotides, connects sugars and phosphates together in mRNA, breaks hydrogen bonds, deprecated mRNA from DNA

80

What are the steps for scientific method

Q
R
H
E
A
C
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