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Flashcards in Dna Test Deck (118):
1

What are the purine and pyrimidine bases

Purine- adenine guanine
Pyrimidine- thymine and cytosine

2

Review the picture,

What are all the parts

3

Shape of DNA

Double helix

4

The information that directs replication transcription and translation are found in what

DNA's bases

5

What is chargaffs rule

Base pairing in DNA was determined from the rule, the percentage of pyrimidine a in DNA is about equal to the percentage of purines, showing the base pairings

6

DNA to DNA is known as

Replication

7

DNA to RNA is known as

Transcription

8

RNA to amino acid sequence is known as

Translation

9

Where do replication and transcription occur

Nucleus

10

Where does translation occur

Cytoplasm attached to ribosome

11

What is different between leading strand and lagging

Leading strand is replicated continuously, lagging strand is replicated discontinuous my forming Okazaki fragments

12

Review the mutations on review

26-28

13

Positions available in the genetics industry, hundreds of entry level openings for tireless workers. No previous experience needed, must be able to transcribe code in nuclear environment

RNA polymerase

14

Accuracy and speed vital for the job in translation, skills in transporting and positioning amino acid

tRNA

15

Executive position available, must maintain genetic continuity through replication and control cellular activity by regulation of enzyme production

DNA

16

Supervisor of production of proteins-all shifts, must be able to follow exact directions from double stranded template, travel from nucleus to the cytoplasm

mRNA

17

Review questions 35 and 38, 39, 41, 57

The sequence code

18

What parts are to the nucleotide in DNA

Deoxyribose, phosphate, + C G T A

19

Because of base pairing the percentage of ---- in DNA is about equal to the percentage of ----

Pyrimidines= purines

20

DNA is copied in what process

Semi conservative replication

21

Difference between RNA and DNA

RNA- ribose sugar, single strand, uracil no T
DNA- deoxyribose, double strand, T no U

22

What types of RNA are used in protein synthesis

mRNA, rRNA, tRNA

23

During transcription where is RNA formed and its qualities

Inside nucleus
Single stranded
Complementary to one strands of DNA

24

Why is it possible for an amino acid to be specified by more than one kind of codon

There are 64 different kinds of codons but only 20 amino acids

25

What RNA is a blueprint of genetic code

mRNA

26

What happens in translation

Cel uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins

27

During translation the type of amino acid that is added to polypeptide chain depends on what

The codon on mRNA and the anticodon on tRNA

28

Different gene mutations

Insertion, deletion, substitution, point, and frame shift

29

Insertion

Addition of an extra nucleotide, results in frame shift mutation

30

Deletion

Removal or an original nucleotide, results in frame shift mutation

31

Substitution

Change of a nucleotide to another, result in point mutation

32

Point mutation

Mutation affecting one or a few nucleotides

33

Frame shift mutation

Change all codons that follow the mutation

34

What is a promoter

Binding site for RNA polymerase

35

RNA polymerase

Used to transcribe RNA from DNA, regulate RNA synthesis, finds to specific section where mRNA will be synthesized. As DNA strand unwinds the poly. Initiated mRNA synthesis by moving 3-5' along DNA strand. The DNA strand that is read by the poly. Is called template strand. Once mRNA is complete the poly detaches

36

What can result from DNA mutation

Cancer (from mutated body cell) decreased functioning my birth defects ( sex cell mutated) or no problem observed

37

What other functions can RNA perform

Catalyze F chemical reactions processing messenger RNA after transcription
Helping DNA replicate

38

DNA helicase

Unwinds and unzips DNA double helix during replication (breaks hydrogen)

39

DNA Ligase

Bunds Okazaki fragments together

40

DNA polymerase

Catalyze the addition of DNA nucleotides to make replicates adding to the 3' end of the new strand
( builds the new strands of DNA from the old strand (builds the hydrogen and phosphodiester)

41

RNA Primase

Adds short pieces of RNA to each strand of DNA to help keep the helix open and to as a starter piece with a 3' end

42

RNA polymerase

Catalyze the addition of RNA nucleotides to transcribe DNA into RNA adding to the 3' end of new strand

43

Chromatin

Loosely coiled DNA (in this state during interphase)

44

Chromatids

Tightly coiled DNA found during mitosis

45

Chromosomes

Pair of identical chromatids that are joined by a centromere

46

How many sets of chromosomes are in the human body cell

2

47

How many total chromosomes are in the human body

46

48

What is body cell and examples

Somatic cell
Ex: kidney, liver, bone, skin, etc.

49

What is the monomer of DNA

Nucleotide

50

What is monomer of RNA

Nucleotide

51

What is monomer of protein

Amino acid

52

Watson crick pp

Used the discoveries of the others to build the first model of DNA

53

Franklin Wilkins

Discovered the position of the nucleotides and how many strands in DNA (2)

54

Chargaff did what

Base pairing rules (a=t, g=c)

55

Define DNA replication

Making identical copies of strands of DNA

56

What is DNA replication purpose

Ensuring that the RNA that each daughter cell gets is identical to that of the parent cell

57

Where do the free floating nucleotides for DNA replication and protein synthesis come from?

Food

58

Define gene

A sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a specific protein

59

Shape different between RNA and DNA

RNA has three different shapes, DNA is double helix

60

mRNA

Carries the genetic code to a ribosome, linear

61

rRna

Read the genetic code, globular, joins with protein to form the ribosome

62

tRNA

Transfers amino acids to the code, has anticodon, t shaped

63

Codon

Three bases found on mRNA that codes for an amino acid

64

Anticodon

Found on tRNA, it is the complement to a codon

65

What is the end result of transcription

A RNA molecule

66

What is the end result of translation

A polypeptide

67

Do all codons code for amino acids

No some code for STOP

68

How many amino acids and codons are there

20
64

69

What causes a protein to be released from the ribosome

Stop codon

70

What determines the shape and size of a protein

The sequence and number of amino acids

71

What is a mutation

Change in the sequence of DNA

72

What is mutagen

Something that causes a mutation

73

Mutagen examples

Asbestos, radiation, cigarette smoke

74

Sister chromatids

Identical halves of a chromosome

75

Centromere

Protein that binds the sister chromatid together

76

What type of bond are between phosphate and deoxyribose sugar

Covalent

77

Bond between deoxyribose and nitrous base

Covalent

78

Bond between nitrogenous base and nitrogenous base

Hydrogen

79

Bond between amino acid and amino acid

Peptide

80

What do you base the amino acids off of in DNA sequence

mRNA

81

What may happen to a protein it it is built incorrectly

Wrong function

82

Why is correct DNA replication important to protein synthesis and reproduction

DNA not copied right, mistakes will be passed to daughter, which will make wrong mRNA code, which codes wrong sequence for amino acids, will give protein wrong shape and will not function properly

83

What does DNA stand for

Deoxyribonucleic acid

84

Where is DNA found in the cell

Nucleus

85

DNA structure

Double helix

86

Replication

Helicase splits open the DNA molecule breaking the hydrogen bonds between the bases. Spare DNA nucleotides bonds the sugar and phipagt backbones of he new strands starting with the 5' end in the leading strand m. It works continuously on the leading stand, and discontinuous lay on the 3' strand, leaving Okazaki fragments are put together by Ligase

87

What is the backbone of DNA

Sugar phosphates

88

How do you determine the leading and laggin stands

5' of the new strand is leading

89

How would you decide which end of the DNA molecule is the 3' and 5' end

The 3' is the bottom of the house 5' is the top

90

DNA is the what

Code of life

91

Deoxyribose means what

DNA has one less oxygen than ribose

92

Nucleic acids break down into what

Nucleotides

93

RNA is decoded by what

Ribosome in the cytoplasm

94

The three nitrogen base sections of mRNA are called

Codons

95

DNA can be found where during mitosis

Cytoplasm

96

Where is RNA located

Cytoplasm

97

Name the phases in order

Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

98

Where does a cell spend majority of its time (phase)

Interphase

99

Interphase

G1: normal growth and normal cell function processes
S: synthesis- DNA replication
G2: cell prepares for mitosis (duplicates all organelles)

100

What form is DNA in interphase

Chromatin, relaxed

101

When is the nucleus present

Interphase

102

Prophase

Chromatin condenses into chromatid, nuclear membrane breaks down, nucleus disappears, spindle appears, centromere connect chromatids, centrioles move to poles

103

Metaphase

Chromatids move to equated and form a line

104

Anaphase

Centromeres break and the sister chromatids move to opposite poles, spindle shortens and pulls chromatids to cell

105

Telophase

A nuclear membrane forms around each new set of chromosomes
Spindle disappears, cytokinesis occurs
Chromatids relaxes to chromatin
Two new cells in interphase are formed

106

What is cytokinesis

Splitting of the cell (cytoplasm)

107

Curing which phase of the cell are DNA and centrolies of animal cells replicated

Synthesis

108

What is the point of mitosis

Growth and repair

109

What cell parts reappear during telophase

Nucleus and nucleolus

110

Why must cells be small in size

To help move materials around

111

When do chromosomes become visible

Telophase

112

When are chromosomes located at equated

Metaphase

113

Nuclear membrane fades from view

Prophase

114

The chromosomes are moving towards the piles of the cell

Anaphase

115

Chromosomes are not visible

Interphase

116

Reverse of prophase

Telophase

117

Chromosomes are replicated

Interphase

118

Building blocks of DNA

Nucleotides