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Block Science > Evolution > Flashcards

Flashcards in Evolution Deck (46):
1

Homologous structure

Same structure and ancestor but used differently
Forearms

2

Vestigial structure

Reduced form of ancestor structure
Appendix

3

Comparative embryology

Embryos look similar show
Common ancestor

4

What is fitness

Measure of relative contribution an individual trait makes to next generation

5

Natural selection acts upon

Phenotype

6

What characteristics help an organism to remain fit

Mimicry and camouflage

7

What is mimicry

A species mimics another to fend off predators

8

What is the definition of speciation

Formation of new species

9

Gradualism

Gradual divergence

10

Punctuated equilibrium

Changes most at start then little for rest of life

11

What is divergent evolution

One species evolved into two species

12

Convergent evolution

Different areas and different ancestors but similar environments make
Organisms evolve similar traits

13

Geographic isolation

Separated by geologic barrier

14

Reproductive isolation

Members of two populations can't interbreed and produce fertile offspring

15

Genetic drift

Random change in allele frequency causes and allele to become common

16

Gene pool

Common group of all genes present in a population

17

What size will genetic drift affect most

Small

18

What is the biggest force driving evolution

Natural selection

19

What was produced from the Miller Ray experiments

Early life condition, amino acids sugars and nucleotides

20

What was the first genetic material on earth

RNA

21

Who officially disproved the spontaneous generation

Francesco redi

22

What is spontaneous generation

Theory of living things coming from non living things

23

What was lamarcks theory

Organisms required traits by using bodies in different ways

24

Endosymbiosis theory

Eukaryotes developed from one larger prokaryote engulfing another and working
Together

25

Genetic drift
Migration
And non random mating can all cause

Speciation
Natural selection

26

Archaebacteria was

Autotrophic
Prokaryotic
Chemo synthetic

27

A genetic change will be maintained in a population is the change

Improves fitness

28

What must occur for speciation

Isolation

29

Five points of natural selection

Population have variations
Variation favorable
More offspring are produced and survive
Who survive carry favorable traits
A population will change over time

30

Stabilizing selection

Middle graph
The extremes are selected against
Ex average height

31

Directional selection

One extreme is selected for
Graph goes to one side
Ex super tall giraffe neck

32

Disruptive selection

Graph goes both sides no middle
The extremes are both selected for
Super tall or super short
No average

33

Founder effect

Cause of genetic drift attributable to colonization by a limited number of individuals from a parent population

34

Gene flow

Genetic exchange due to migration of fertile individuals between populations
Reduces differences between populations

35

Non random mating

Interbreeding and assortive mating
Artificial selection

36

Natural selection examples

Beetle picture and antibacterial
Soap

37

What occurs when there is a changing in relative frequency of allele or gene pool

Evolution of population

38

Single gene

Two phenotype a

39

Polygenic

Many phenotype a

40

Sexual dimorphism

Secondary sec characteristic distinct
Make and female difference

41

Sexual selection

Selection towards secondary sec characteristic, leads to dimorphism

42

Hardy Weinberg principals

The original proportion of genotype in a population a remains constant if
Population size oils large
Random mating
No mutations
No genes lost or introduced
No selection occurs
Basically all genotype a can survive and produce equally well

43

As new species evolve what happens to population

Populations become reproductively isolated

44

Behavioral isolation

Capable of breeding but have different breeding calls
Example meadowlarks

45

Temporal isolation

Two or
More species reproduce at different times

46

Speciation occurred in Galapagos finches by

Founding of a new population
Geographic isolation
Reproductive isolation
Changes in Gene pool due to competition