Biogeography & Terrestrial Biomes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biogeography & Terrestrial Biomes Deck (53)
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1

ecology

study of how organisms interact w/ each other & w/ their surrounding environment
- goal: understand distribution & abundance of orgs

2

population

group of INDIVIDUALS of SAME SPECIES living in same geographic area @ same time

3

community

all SPECIES that interact w/ each other in a certain area

4

ecosystem

all ORGANISMS living in a geographic area, together w/ abiotic components that affect or exchange materials w/ organisms
- community + physical environment

5

abiotic

not alive
- temp. important in determining range

(ie) water, air & some soil components
(ie) temp, rainfall, presence of mountain or ocean, continental drift

6

biosphere

thin zone surrounding world where all life exists
- sum of all terrestrial & acquatic ecosystems

7

conservation biology

effort to study, preserve & restore threatened genetic diversity, populations, communities & ecosystems

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biogeography

study of how species & populations are distributed geographically

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range

geographic distribution of species
- each org has specific range of tolerance of abiotic conditions
- determined by abiotic & biotic factors
- dynamic

10

biotic

living or produced by a living organism

(ie) interactions w/ otro orgs, competition & resource availability

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dispersal

movement of individuals from their place of origin (birth, hatching) to a new location

12

Wallace line

(Indonesian region) line that demarcates areas
- each characterized by a distinct set of animal species
- DISPERSAL BARRIER

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exotic species

nonnative species that is introduced into new area

(ie) often competitors, pathogens, or predators of native species

14

invasive species

exotic species that, upon introduction to new area, spreads rapidly & competes successfully w/ native species

15

climate

prevailing, long-term weather conditions in a particular region
- components: temp, moisture, sunlight & wind

16

weather

specific, short-term atmospheric conditions of temperature, moisture, sunlight & wind in certain area

17

Hadley cell

atmospheric cycle of large-scale
- circulation cells occur @ 0˚ to 30˚ N/S (wet) & 30˚ N/S to 60˚ N/S (dry)
- major cycle in global air circulation

18

rain shadow

dry region on side of a mountain range away from prevailing wind

19

specific heat (Cs)

measure (of capacity of) a substance to absorb energy
- amount of E required to raise the temp of 1 g of a substance by 1 degree C

20

biomes

large terrestrial or marine region characterized by distinct abiotic characteristics & dominant types of vegetation

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net primary productivity (NPP)

(ecosystem) total amount of carbon fixed by photosynthesis over a given time period minus amount oxidized during cellular respiration

22

biomass

total mass of all organisms in a given population or geographical area
- usually expressed as total dry weight

23

aboveground biomass

total mass of living plants in an area, excluding roots

24

permafrost

permanently frozen layer of icy soil found in most tundra & some taiga

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ecology primary goal

understand:
- distribution (why certain species live where they do)
- abundance (how many live there)

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population ecology

study how # and distribution of individuals in a population changes over time
- longitudinal study

27

community ecology

question the nature of SPECI INTERACTION & consequences of interactions

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5 levels of ecology

(1) organismal ecology
(2) population ecology
(3) community ecology
(4) ecosystem ecology
(5) global ecology

29

ecosystem ecology

study how nutrients & energy move among organisms and through the surround atmosphere, soil & water
- look at FOOD WEB
- abiotic
- extension of organismal, population & community ecology

30

organismal ecology

give an idea of how morphological, physiological & behavioral adaptations affect where an individual lives
- individual adaptations + population distribution