Life History Strategies Flashcards Preview

BIO120 > Life History Strategies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Life History Strategies Deck (31)
Loading flashcards...
1

population ecology

study of how & why number of individuals in a population changes over time & space

2

population density

number of individuals of a population per unit area

3

metapopulation

population made up of many small, physically isolated populations connected by migration
- forced to move

(ie) Native American migration throughout history
(ie) animal habitats in the city - houses to forest ratio

4

immigration

migration INTO a particular population from other population
- increase population

IMI

5

emigration

migration AWAY from one population to another
- decreases population

EMA

6

demography

study of factors that determine size & structure of populations through time

7

age structure

proportion of individuals in a population that are of each possible age

8

generation

avg. time btwn mother's 1st offspring & her daughter's 1st offspring

9

life table

(data set) summarize probability when an individual in a certain population will survive & reproduce in any given year over the cause of its lifetime

10

age class

all individuals of a specific age in a population

11

cohort

group of individuals that are the same age & can be followed through time

12

survivorship

avg. proportion of offspring that survive to a particular age
- can be calculated

13

survivorship curve

graph depicting percentage of a population that survives to diff. ages

14

fecundity

avg # of female offspring produced by each female over course of her lifetime

15

age-specific fecundity

avg # of female offspring produced by a female in a certain age class

16

net reproductive rate (Ro)

growth rate of a population/generation
- equivalent to avg # female offspring each female produces over her lifetime

17

fitness trade-off

(evolutionary biology) inescapable compromise btwn 2 traits that cannot be optimized simultaneously

(ie) either spend energy reproducing or else surviving

18

life history

sequence of events in an individual's life from birth to reproduction to death
- how individual allocates resources to growth, reproduction & activities or structures related to survival
- shaped by NS

19

arrangement patterns (AP)

(1) random
(2) clumped
(3) uniform

20

random (AP)

position is independent of others

(ie) seed dispersion

21

clumped (AP)

habitat quality = patchy or cliques

(ie) fish school

22

uniform (AP)

negative interactions occur among individuals

(ie) competition for space, H2O, resources

23

central processes of demography

(1) birth
(2) death
(3) emigration
(4) immigration

24

why are females the main focus of studying generations?

number of males rarely affect population growth

25

which age class is most important to save in conservation ecology?

The age-class producing the most babies

26

types of survivorship

(1) Type I
(2) Type II
(3) Type III

27

Type I survivorship

high survivorship throughout life
- most approach species max. life span

(ie) humans

28

Type II survivorship

same probability of dying each year of life

(ie) blackbirds & songbirds

29

Type III survivorship

extremely high death rates, but high survival rates later in life

(ie) plant seedlings

30

reason fitness trade-off occurs

individual has restricted amount of time energy @ dispersal
- limited resources

(ie) balance reproducing w/ staying healthy & alive