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Flashcards in Consumption & Mutualism Deck (15)
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1

herbivory

practice of eating plant tissues

(ie) caterpillars chew leaves
(ie) marine iguanas feed on algae

2

parasitism

symbiotic relationship btwn 2 orgs that is beneficial to one org (parasite) but detrimental to other (host)
- often occurs over long period
- not necessarily fatal
- parasites = smaller than host
- social parasite -> convince otro specie to raise their young

(ie) worms, ticks, mites & unicellular protists -> humans

3

host

individual invaded by an org such as parasite or a virus
- provides habitat or resources to a commensal org

4

predation

predator kills & eats prey

5

constitutive defense

defensive trait that is always manifested even in the absence of a predator or pathogen
- aka standing defense
- present even in absence of predator

(ie) mimicry
(ie) cryptic coloration – blend in w/ environment
(ie) escape behavior – have adaptations to detect predators  run/fly/swim/jump aways
(ie) toxins & otro defense chemicals
(ie) schooling/flocking  predators confused by groups of prey
(ie) defense armor / weapons  protective shells, sharp spines, etc.

6

mimicry

phenomenon in which one species has evolved or learns to look or sound like another species
- Batesian or Mullerian

7

Batesian mimicry

HARMLESS or palatable species resembles a dangerous or poisonous species
- look dangerous, not dangerous

(ie) hornet moth, wasp beetle & hoverfly look like bees & wasps

8

Müllerian mimicry

HARMFUL species resemble each other
- similar-looking unpleasant prey live in same habitat -> increases predator avoidance
- look dangerous, are dangerous

(ie) paper wasp, bumblebee & honeybee

9

inducible defenses

defensive trait manifested in response to presence of a consumer (predator or herbivore) or pathogen
- effective but expensive
- declines if predator leaves habitat
- energetically efficient
- slow, takes time to produce them

(ie) porcupine quills

10

meta-analysis

compare results of analyses from previously published studies
- study of studies

11

integrated pest management

(agriculture or forestry) systems for managing insects or other pests
- carefully controlled applications of toxins
- introduce species that prey on pests
- planting schemes that reduce chance of a severe pest outbreak
- maximize crop & forest production, using min. of insecticides or otro harmful compounds

12

types of consumption

(1) herbivory
(2) parasitism
(3) predation

13

"why is the world green" hypotheses

(1) top-down hypothesis
(2) bottom-up limitation hypothesis

14

top-down hypothesis

herbivore populations limited by predation & disease
- reflects herbivore's on food chain
- predators remove herbivores, plant material leftover

15

bottom-up limitation hypothesis

plant tissues offer poor nutrition & are well defended
- reflects plant's position on food chain
- herbivore numbers limited b/c plant tissues contain toxic chemicals & poor nutrients