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Flashcards in Green Plants Deck (45)
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1

ecosystem services

all benefits that humans derive, directly or indirectly, from ecosystem fcns

2

nonvascular plant

paraphyletic group of land plants
- lack vascular tissue
- reproduce using spore

(ie) bryphytes

3

seedless vascular plant

have vascular tissue
- no produce seeds
- make microscopic spores that are carried by wind to new habitats

(ie) ferns

4

seed plant

have vascular tissue
- embryo w/ store of nutritive tissue surrounded by tough protective layer

(ie) angiosperm

5

vascular tissue

tissue that transports H2O, nutrients & sugars
- plants only
- made of complex tissues of xylem & phloem
- aka vascular tissue system

6

seed

plant reproductive system consisting of embryo, nutritive tissue (endosperm) & outer protective layer (seed coat)

7

angiosperm

flowering vascular plant that produces seeds w/in mature ovaries (fruit)
- form a single lineage

8

sporangia

spore-producing structure found in seed plants, some protists & some fungi

(ie) chytrids

9

gymnosperm

vascular plant that makes seeds but does not produce flowers
- 5 lineages: cycads, ginkgoes, conifers, redwoods, & gnetophytes

10

green algae

paraphyletic group of photosynthetic orgs
- contain chloroplasts similar to green plants
- often classified as protists
- closest living relatives of land plants

11

lichen

symbiotic association of a fungus
- a photosynthetic alga + cyanobacterium

12

peat

semi-decayed organic matter
- accumulates in moist, low-oxygen environments

13

rhizoid

hairlike structure that anchors nonvascular plant to substrate

14

roots

underground part of plant (anchors plants, absorbs H2O & nutrients)
- most ancestral branch in phylogenetic tree

15

rhizome

modified stem
- runs horizontally underground
- produces new plants @ nodes (sexual reproduction)

16

Types of green plants

(1) green algae
(2) land plants

17

Green plant significance to environment

(1) produce oxygen
(2) create, build, hold soil
(3) holds H2O & moderates climate (shade = low temp/wind)
(4) primary producers

18

3 categories of land plants

(1) nonvascular plants
(2) seedless vascular plants
(3) seed plants

19

cuticle

protective coating secreted by outermost layer of cells of animal/plant
- fcn: decrease water loss/evaporation

20

stoma

pore or opening
- (plants) microscopic pore surrounded by specialized cells that open pore -> found on surface of leaf/stem
- fcn: gas exchange
- pl. stomata

21

guard cells

1 of 2 specialized, crescent-shaped cells forming border of plant stoma
- change shape to open or close stoma

22

pore

(land plants) opening in epithelium
- fcn: gas exchange

23

lignin

substance found secondary cell walls of some plants
- stiff & strong
- complex polymer built from 6-carbon rings
- most abundant in woody plants parts
- hard to break
- "rings"

24

tracheids

(vascular plants) long, thin, water conducting cell
- has pits where lignin-containing secondary cell wall is absent
- allow H2O movement btwn adjacent cells
- "holes at top/bottom"

25

vessel elements

(vascular plants) short, wide, water conducting cell
- gaps through primary/secondary cell walls
- allow unimpeded passage of H2O btwn adjacent cells

"gaps at top/bottom"

26

wood

xylem resulting of secondary growth
- forms strong supporting material
- aka secondary xylem

27

gametangia

gamate forming structure found in all land plants, except angiosperms
- parts: antheridium (sperm-produce) & archegonium (egg-produce)
- gamate-forming structure of some chytrid fungi
- fcn: prevent drying out

28

embryophyte

plant that nourishes embryos inside own body

29

alternation of generation

(life cycle) alternate multicelluar haploid stage (gametophyte) w/ multicellular diploid stage (sporophyte)
- occurs in most plants, some protists

30

gametophyte

multicellular haploid form that arises from single haploid spore & produces gamates
- org undergoing AoG