The Prokaryotes Flashcards Preview

BIO120 > The Prokaryotes > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Prokaryotes Deck (26)
Loading flashcards...
1

prokaryotes

unicellular orgs lacking nucleus
Bacteria & Archaea
common ancestor of all species today

"before kernel" - nucleus

2

eukaryotes

org w/ nucleus, membrane-bound organelles & cytoskeleton
unicellular or multicellular

"true kernel" - nucleus

3

Archaea

1 of 3 taxonomic domains of life

unicellular prokaryotes
cell walls made of polysaccharides, plasma membrane, ribosomes & RNA polymerase

4

extremophiles

bacterium or archaen that thrive in "extreme" environments
- high salt, high temp, low temp, low pressure

5

pathogenic

any entity capable of causing disease
"disease producing"

(ie.) virus, microb, prion

6

germ theory of disease

infectious diseases = caused by bacteria, viruses & other microorgs
- pattern: certain diseases are infectious
- process: transmission & growth of bacteria/virus

7

toxin

poison produced by living org

8

virulence

ability to cause disease

9

antibiotics

any substance that can kill/stop growth of bacteria
- produced naturally by soil-dwelling bacteria/fungi

10

biofilms

complex bacterium enmeshed in polysaccharide-rich, extracellular matrix that allows them to attach to a surface

11

bioremediation

use living orgs (bacteria/archaea) to degrade environmental problems

12

phototroph

org that produces ATP through photosynthesis
"light feeders"

(ie) plants, algae, some bacteria

13

chemoorganotroph

org that produces ATP by oxidizing organic molecules w/ high potential energy
- aka organotroph
- cellular respiration or fermentation
- sugar = e- donor

14

chemolithotrophs

org (bacteria/archaea) that produces ATP by oxidixing inorganice molecules w/ high potential energy
- aka lithotroph
- "rock feeders"

15

autotroph

org that can synthesize reduced organic compounds of simple inorganic sources
- aka primary producers
- "self-feeders"

(ie) most plants & some bacteria/archaea

16

heterotroph

org that cannot synthesize reduced organic compounds of simple inorganic sources
- must obtain from other orgs
- aka consumer
- "other feeders"

(ie) some bacteria/archaea & all fungi, animals

17

cellular respiration

common pathway for ATP production
- transfer e- compounds w/ HP energy through e- transport chain to an e- acceptor (ie. oxygen)

18

ATP

molecule w/ adenine base, sugar & 3 PO4 groups
- can be hydrolyzed to release energy
- adenosine triphosphate
- used by cells to store/transfer energy

19

fermentation

any metabolic pathways that regenerate oxidizing agents by transferring e- to a final e- aceptor in absence of an e- transport chain
- process cont. w/out transport chain

20

photosynthesis

(biological process) convert light energy into chemical energy
- stored in glucose & other organic compounds
- occurs in most plants, algae & some bacteria

21

oxygenic (photosynthesis)

any process/rxn that produces oxygen
- photosynthesis in plants, algae & cyanobacteria (involves photosynthesis II)
- use H20 as e- source for photosynthesis
- "oxygen producing"

22

anoxygenic (photosynthesis)

any process/rxn that does not produce oxygen
- photosynthesis in purple sulfur & purple nonsulfur bacteria
- "no oxygen producing"
- produce sulfur or ferric ion

23

methanotroph

org (bacteria/archaea) that uses methan as its primary e- donor & source of carbon
- "methane eaters"

24

cyanobacteria

a lineage of photosynthetic bacteria (blue-green algae)
- 1st life forms to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis

25

aerobic respiration

any metabolic process, cell, or org that uses oxygen as e- acceptor

26

anaerobic respiration

any metabolic process, cell, or org that uses an e- acceptor other than oxygen
- include fermentation