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Flashcards in Behavioral Ecology Deck (18)
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1

behavior

any action by an org
- often in response to a stimulus
- can evolve by natural selection

2

behavioral ecology

study how orgs respond to a particular abiotic & biotic stimuli from environment

3

proximate causation

the immediate, mechanistic cause of phenomenon
- aka approximate explanation
- mechanistic
- how actions occur: genetic, neurological, hormonal & skeletal-muscular mechanisms

(ie) animal courtship = neural & hormonal signal

4

ultimate causation

the reason a trait/phenomenon is thought to have evolved
- the adaptive advantage of that trait
- aka ultimate explanation
- evolutionary
- why actions occur: evolutionary consequences & history

(ie) particular behavior = adaptive & increases fitness

5

territories

area that is actively defended by an animal from others of its species
- provides exclusive or semi-exclusive use of its resources by owner

6

fixed action patterns (FAP)

highly stereotyped behavior pattern that occurs in a certain invariant way in certain species
- form of innate behavior

7

innate behavior

behavior inherited genetically that is typical of species
- does not have to be learned
- more fixed & stereotypical

(ie) fixed action patterns
(ie) sneezing & yawning
(ie) imprinting

8

learning

an enduring change in an individual's behavior
- results from specific experience(s)
- more flexible & conditional

(ie) B.F. Skinner rats learning rewards & punishments for lifting lever
(ie) speech

9

cost-benefit analysis

decisions or analyses that weigh the fitness costs & benefits of a particular action

10

foraging

searching for food

(ie) rovers v. sitters in fruit fly larvae eating behavior

11

optimal foraging

maximizing feeding efficiency
- related to fitness: more time, E & availability for reproduction

(ie) gerbils w/ owl fly-over experiment

12

migration

seasonal movement of large numbers of orgs from one population
- could use: piloting, compass orientation or true navigation

13

piloting

use familiar landmarks to find their way
- type of navigation
- memorize route, later able to pilot route

(ie) migratory birds
(ie) how we explain finding a place to another person

14

compass orientation

oriented w/ specific direction
- type of navigation
- compass = Sun, stars & earth magnetic field (depend on weather & otro)
- use circadian clock + compass

(ie) European robins - migratory birds

15

true navigation

simply know where "home" is
- type of navigation
- (aka) map orientation
- use magnetic field + home

(ie) sea turtles

16

circadian clock

internal mech. found in most orgs
- regulates many body processes (sleep/wake cycles, hormonal patterns)

17

migration costs

(1) lots of traveling
(2) complete migration could take multiple generations - monarch butterfly

18

migration benefits

(1) follow food source - fish move throughout seasons
(2) increase reproductive success - new areas
(3) safer for young - salmon freshwater
(4) more food for adults - salmon ocean