Competition Flashcards Preview

BIO120 > Competition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Competition Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
1

community

all of the species that interact w/ each other in a certain area
- type of specie interaction

2

commensalism

a symbiotic relationship in which one org (the commensal) benefits & the other (the host) is not harmed
- type of specie interaction

(+/0)

3

competition

(ecology) interaction btwn 2 species or 2 individuals trying to use the same limited resource (ie. water, food, living space)
- intraspecific or interspecific competition
- lowers fitness of both individuals
- type of specie interaction

(-/-)

4

consumption

when one organism eats or absorbs nutrients from another
- interaction increases consumer’s fitness
- decreases victim’s fitness

(+/-)

5

mutualism

a symbiotic relationship btwn 2 orgs (mutualists) that benefits both
- type of specie interaction
- not always beneficial (deceit pollination - venus fly trap)

(+/+)

6

coevolution

pattern of evolution where two interacting species influence each other’s adaptations over time

(ie) deers become fast, wolves change hunting strategies

7

coevolutionary arms race

repeating cycle of reciprocal adaptation

(ie) one nation develops a new weapon -> rival nation develops defensive weapon -> original nation makes new, more powerful weapon

8

intraspecific competition

competition btwn members of the SAME species for SAME limited resources
- “w/in species”
- major cause of density-dependent growth

9

interspecific competition

competition btwn members of DIFF species for SAME limited resources
- “btwn species”
- niches overlap

10

niche

range of resources that a species can use & the range of conditions that it can tolerate
- more broadly, role that species plays in its ecosystem

11

symmetric competition

ecological competition btwn 2 species in which both suffer similar declines in fitness
- result of niche overlap

12

asymmetric competition

(ecological competition btwn 2 species) one species suffers a greater fitness decline than other

13

competition exclusion principle

idea that two species cannot coexist together in the same place
- results in strong & weak competitor
- asymmetric competition

14

fundamental niche

total theoretical range of environmental conditions that a species can tolerate

15

realized niche

portion of the fundamental niche that a species actually occupies, given limiting factors such as competition w/ otro species

16

fitness trade-offs

(evolutionary biology) inescapable compromise btwn 2 traits that cannot be optimized simultaneously
- good @ one thing, not the other

17

niche differentiation

evolutionary change in resource b/c of competition
- occurs as result of character displacement
- resource partitioning

18

character displacement

evolutionary change occurring in species’ traits
- overlapping ranges change in a way that reduces interspecific competition
- enables species to use diff. resources
- niche differentiation possible
- represents directional natural selection

19

types of species interactions

(1) commensalism
(2) competition
(3) consumption
(4) mutualism