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Flashcards in Comm & Cooperation Deck (14)
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1

communication

(ecology) any process in which a signal from one individual modifies behavior of another individual

(ie) honeybee dance

2

signal

(behavioral ecology) any info containing behavior or characteristic

3

altruism

any behavior w/ fitness cost to giver & fitness benefit to recipient
- self-sacrifice
- paradoxical: natural selection favors selfishness
- may be voluntary or not

(ie) prairie dog calling

4

coefficient of relatedness (r)

measure of how closely two individuals are related
- calculated as probability that an allele in two individuals = inherited from same ancestor

5

Hamilton's rule

altruism favored by NS if fitness benefit x fitness cost > coefficient of relatedness

Br > C

6

fitness benefit to recipient

B in Hamilton's rule

7

fitness cost to actor

C in Hamilton's rule

8

inclusive fitness

1) direct production of offspring & fitness
2) extra production of offspring by relatives in response to help provided individual in question

indirect fitness + direct fitness = inclusive fitness

- indirect = altruism
- direct = parental care

9

kin selection

NS that acts through benefits to relatives via altruism

< direct fitness + > indirect fitness = > inclusive fitness

10

eusociality

workers sacrifice most or all of direct reproduction to help rear queen's offspring
- complex social structure
- common in insects (ants, bees, wasps, termites)

11

reciprocal altruism

fitness benefits exchanged btwn a pair of individuals @ diff. times
- help individual who helped them b4

12

deceitful communication

misleading signal to another individual
- could be same or diff. species

(ie) diff = hognose snake pretend to die
(ie) diff = opossum pretend to die
(ie) same = bluefill sunfish - female mimics dispense sperm in otro male territory & run away

13

when is altruism more likely to occur

(1) high fitness benefits for recipient
(2) altruist + recipient = close relatives
(3) low fitness cost to altruist

14

benefits of assisting others

(1) hunting in pacts = more likely to kill prey
(2) less harassment if in cliques