Flashcards in Biology of Behavior and Growth and Development Deck (52)
What kind of study did Murphy et al. (2015) conduct? What was it about?
A longitudinal study about asthma.
What are examples of targeted rejection?
Romantic partner ending relationship. Getting fired.
What was the control group of the Murphy et al. (2015) experiment?
Similar events but experienced not targeted rejection (chose to end relationship; being one of many people to be "let go.")
What is targeted rejection associated with? (3)
1. Depression. 2. Physiological reactions. 3. Increased inflammatory activity.
What are moderating variables?
They influence the strength of an effect, making it stronger or weaker.
In the Murphy et al. (2015) study, what were the main results?
Event influenced genetics, but impact varied by perceived social status.
What does mRNA due, in the context of the Murphy et al. (2015) study?
Regulates the binding of cortisol.
How did targeted rejection affect mRNA levels, in the context of the Murphy et al. (2015) study?
Targeted rejection lead to lower levels of mRNA.
Which group received the greatest impact in the Murphy et al. (2015) study?
Those with high perceived social status.
What is the theory of probabilistic epigenetics? Who is associated with the theory?
Development is bidirectional (interacting biology and environment that are part of a bigger system). Gottlieb.
What are secular trends?
Marked changes in physical development that have occurred over generations.
At around what age do boys and girls stop developing at about the same rate?
At around 10-12 years of age.
What is "failure to thrive"?
A condition in which infants become malnourished and fail to grow or gain weight for no obvious medical reason.
When is full height reached, on average, for girls?
15.5 years of age for girls.
When is full height reached, on average, for boys?
17.5 years of age for boys.
What is the benefit of a baby breast-feeding? (3)
1. Bacteria free. 3. Strengthens baby's immune system. 3. Contains mother's antibodies which fight against common infectious agents around after birth.
Is early growth continuous or discontinuous?
Discontinuous, baby's can have dramatic spurts occurring in a single day.
What are five reasons to learn about growth and motor development?
1. Determine reasonable expectations for child. 2. Develop screening tools. 3. Size and motor ability influence others' perceptions of the child. 4. Rate of growth and motor development have implications for the child. 5. Humans are complex systems.
What are the reasons to learn about growth and motor development to determine reasonable expectations for a child? (2)
1. Need to know what is typical (and not typical) of children of a particular age. 2. Need to know how much variation there is in development.
What are some kinds of variation there can be in growth and motor development, in general?
1. In different and same age children. 2. In same child in a short period of time.
What are the reasons to learn about growth and motor development to develop screening tools?
In order to be able to find variations from the norm that may show delayed, accelerated, or asymmetrical development.
How can we screen for growth and motor development problems? (2)
1. Measure weight, length, head circumference. 2. Observe reflexes to make inferences about the functioning of the nervous system.
How good are growth and motor development screens at predicting future problems? (2)
1. They are only a rough indicator. 2. They do not generally correlate highly with later measures of intelligence.
How does the size and the motor ability influence others' perceptions of the child? (3)
1. Make inferences about competence. 2. About athletic ability. 3. Beliefs influence our interactions with children.
What did Jean-Jacques Rousseae (1712-1778) believe?
1. Believed that children were born good and corrupted by society. 2. Thought that parents should just "Let genes unfold."
What did John Locke (1632-1704) believe?
Believed children were shaped by life experiences. "Blank slates".
What did John Watson (1878-1958) believe?
That the environment was extremely important. Could mold anyone into any profession or kind of person.
What is polygenetic inheritance?
Inheritance in which traits are governed by more than one gene.
What are endophenotypes?
Intermediate phenotypes, including the brain and nervous systems, that do not involve overt behavior.