Flashcards in Perceptual Development Deck (29)
How can we assess perceptual development in infants? (3)
1. Habituation. 2. Preferential Looking/Looking time. 3. Conditioning.
How does one study looking time? Who researched this?
Infants look longer at things they find interesting. Fantz researched this.
How can one study habituation? (4)
1. Present infant with interesting stimuli. 2. Measure activity. 3. Continue until infant loses interest. 4. Change stimuli and see if infant notices.
How can one study an infant by conditioning? (2)
1. Infant trained to make certain responses. 2. Can use this training to see if infant can perceives a change in an object or event.
How much control do newborns have over their eye movements?
Not very much.
What kind of eye movements can newborns make? What kind of eye movements can they not?
They can make saccades - jumping from one place to another. They have difficulty making smooth pursuit movements.
What are saccades?
Jumping from one place to another.
How is a newborn's visual acuity?
Very poor. They can only see low frequencies.
When is vision close to adult vision?
By around 6 months.
What are the three types of deth clues infants use?
1. Binocular. 2. Monocular kinetic or motion cues. 3. Monocular static or pictorial cues.
What does it mean to say that infants have poor contrast sensitivity?
They can detect patterns only when it is composed of highly contrasting elements.
What is binocular disparity?
The difference between the retinal image of an object in each eye that results in two slightly different signals being sent to the brain.
What is stereopsis?
The process by which the visual cortex combines the differing neural signals caused by binocular disparity, resulting in the perception of depth.
What are monocular depth (or pictorial) cues?
The perception of depth (such as relative size and interposition) that can be perceived by one eye alone.
What are two examples of a minocular kinetic cue?
1. Looming. 2. Motion parallax.
What is Motion parallax?
View objects that are closer to us as moving faster than objects that are further away from us
What is Looming?
Expansion of an object as it moves closer.
What is an example of a monocular depth (or pictorial) cue?
1. Linear perspective. 2. Interposition. 3. Relative size.
By what age do children have binocular vision clues?
Around 3-5 months.
By what age do children have monocular kinetic (or motion) cues?
Around 2-3 months.
By what age do children have monocular static (or pictorial) cues?
Around 5-7 months.
Who conducted visual cliff studies?
What did visual cliff studies show? (2)
1. That crawling experience determines fear of heights. 2. Loco-motor infants around 9 months have the fear.
When do infants acquire some auditory perception?
Around 5 months, gestational (as a fetus).
Do infants perceive pain? How do we know?
Yes, we know because of circumcisions studies (measured cortisol and sleep/wake cycles).
What are the three tastes all newborns are able to discriminate?
1. Bitter. 2. Salty. 3. Sweet.
What is social referencing in infants?
Looking to see the parent's face when doing a behavior when unsure of what to do.
What is contrast sensitivity?
The ability to detect differences in light and dark areas in a visual pattern.