Flashcards in Theories of Cognitive Development Deck (30)
What is Piaget's approach to understanding cognitive development labeled as? Why?
Constructivist, because he depicts children as constructing knowledge form themselves in response to their environments.
How did Piaget view children's thinking as different than adults? How was this thinking reflected in his model?
He thought it was qualitatively different. As a result, his theory had stages.
Piaget believed that children had what kind of innate drive?
He believed that children had an innate drive to "organize" the world mentally.
What were Piaget's three sources of continuity in his model?
1. Assimilation. 2. Accommodation. 3. Equilibration.
What is assimilation?
Process by which people incorporate incoming information into concepts they already understand.
What is accommodation?
The process by which people improve their current understanding in response to new experiences.
What is equilibration?
The process by which people balance assimilation and accommodation to create stable understanding.
What are Piaget's sources of discontinuity represented by in his model?
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development?
1. Sensorimotor. 2. Preoperational. 3. Concrete operational. 4. Formal operational.
What age bracket is represented by the sensorimotor stage?
Birth to 2 years.
What age bracket is represented by the preoperational stage?
What age bracket is represented by the concrete operational stage?
What age bracket is represented by the formal operational stage?
What are the characteristics of the sensorimotor stage? (5)
1. Emphasis on learning through motor actions or objects. 2. Thoughts limited to here and now. 3. No mental representation. 4. Object permanence. 5. Deferred imitation.
What characteristic marks the end of the sensorimotor stage and marks the start of the preoperational stage?
The development of symbolic representation.
[Piaget] What is deferred imitation? What stage is it first displayed in?
The repetition of other people's behavior a substantial time after it originally occurred. It is first displayed in the sensorimotor stage.
[Piaget] What is the A-not-B error? What stage is it relevant to?
The tendency to reach for a hidden object where it was last found rather than in the new location where it was last hidden. It is relevant to the sensorimotor stage.
What are the main characteristics of the preoperational stage? (3)
1. Symbolic Representation. 2. Egocentrism. 3. Centration.
[Piaget] What is symbolic representation? What stage is it relevant to?
The use of one object to stand for another.
[Piaget] What are examples of symbolic representation? (2) What stage is it relevant to?
1. Pretend play (imagine something is something else). 2. Language (use words to stand for things). Preoperational stage.
[Piaget] What is egocentrism? What stage is it relevant to?
The tendency to perceive the world solely from one's own point of view. Preoperational stage.
[Piaget] What are examples of measuring egocentrism? (2) What stage is it relevant to?
1. Piaget's three mountains task. 2. Animism. Preoperational stage.
[Piaget] What is centration? What stage is it relevant to?
The tendency to focus on a single, perceptually striking feature of an object or event. Preoperational stage.
[Piaget] What is conservation concept? What stage is it relevant to?
The idea that merely changing the appearance of objects does not necessarily change the objects' other key properties. Preoperational stage.
What is the main characteristics of the concrete operational stage?
Logical reasoning, but limited to concrete, here and now, problems that are not too complex.
What is the main characteristic of the formal operational stage?
Ability to think abstractly and to reason hypothetically.
[Piaget] What is a schema?
Internal mental structures created by assimilation/accommodation.
[Piaget] What is class-inclusion? What stage is it relevant to?
Understanding an object being part of a subset included within a parent set. Concrete operational can understand problem; Preoperational can not understand problem.
Does Piaget's model emphasize global or domain specific processes?