Flashcards in Intellectual Development and Academic Acheivement Deck (37)
How did Alfred Binet think about intelligence?
As a complex set of processes.
According to Alfred Binet, what is the hallmark of IQ? (3)
Higher-level reasoning, judgement, problem-solving.
What did Stern give to the field?
The concept of IQ.
According to Stern, what does IQ measure? (2)
1. Speed of cognitive growth 2. Child's intelligence level relative to his/her age level.
One-factor theories believe what about intelligence?
Intelligence is one global factor.
Does Baby Einstein work?
What did Howard Gardner believe about intelligence?
"Multiple intelligences". 8 different types of intelligence. Each ability is separate with unique learning potential.
What were the findings from Terman's Termites?
Longitudinal study that showed that child geniuses didn't look much different from peers.
When does IQ become more stable?
Around 9 or 10.
What were the findings of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1932?
Correlations of IQ declines with older age.
What does IQ predict? (3)
1. Grades in school. 2. Occupational attainment. 3. Income.
What is IQ not a great predictor of? What is the better predictor?
Occupational performance. Practical intelligence is a better predictor.
What is Cartell's theory?
There is both fluid and crystallized intelligence.
Describe the course of crystallized intelligence?
Raises until well into middle age, then levels off.
Describe the course of fluid intelligence?
Raises until young adulthood, then decreases.
Describe the course of overall intelligence?
Raises until well into middle age, then decreases.
What are some factors that decrease IQ? (5)
1. Environmental risk. 2. Parental education. 3. Number of children in family (being youngest). 4. Parental unemployment. 5. Stress.
How can intelligence be boasted? (4)
1. Positive change in the family. 2. Work environment. 3. Styles of parenting. 4. Schooling.
What are two reasons to use IQ measures?
1. Predict academic success. 2. Comparisons among children.
What are reasons to be cautions about using IQ measures? (2)
1. Possible biases. 2. Limited view of intelligence (no practical or creative intelligence).
What two types of goals can student be motivated by?
1. Learning goals. 2. Performance goals.
What are learning goals?
Desire to master material.
What are performance goals?
Desire to do well on tests.
What are entity beliefs? (4)
1. Intelligence is fixed. 2. Effort not needed. 3. Avoid failure situations. 4. Helpless response when challenged.
What are incremental beliefs? (3)
1. Intelligence can be changed. 2. Effort is valued. 3. Enjoy challenges.
What kind of motivation should be encouraged?
Internal motivation (i.e. not money for grades).
Do Asian parents focus on effort or innate ability?
Who is typically thought to not have "Raw Brilliance?"
Women stereotyped as not having it, as well, as African-Americans.
What is the Stereotype threat?
Idea that when a negative statement is activated, individuals perform more poorly.