Flashcards in Peer Relations Deck (34)
What is a horizontal relationship?
No power differences.
By what age do children begin to smile and gesture?
Around 6-12 months.
By what age, do children have coordinated interactions with peers?
Around 18-24 months.
What kind of interactions occur during the preschool years?
Reciprocal complex peer interaction. Play.
What is solitary play? (2)
1. Not engaged with other people. 2. Focused on exploring objects.
What age does solitary play occur during?
Around 6 months. Common before 2.5 years.
What is parallel play?
Engaged in same activity, but not together.
During what ages is parallel play common?
Between 2-4 years old.
What is associative play? What is important?
Engaged in similar activity, but not formally structured. Socialization is important.
During what ages is associative play common?
Between 3-5 years old.
What is cooperative play?
Have common goal. More organized, but not to win.
During what ages is cooperative play common?
Common in 4+ year olds.
What is competitive play?
Organized, winning is emphasized.
During what ages is competitive play common?
Common after 5 years of age.
What occurs during the elementary school years? (2)
1. More cooperative; complex play. 2. Emergence of true peer groups.
What occurs during adolescence? (4)
1. Sharp increase in time spent with peers. 2. Cliques arise. 3. Crowds arise. 4. Peer influence increases.
What are the characteristics of a positive child? (3)
1. Friendly, pro-social. 2. Not aggressive or withdrawn. 3. Can resolve disputes easily.
What are the characteristics of a rejected child? (4)
1. Aggressive, disruptive, uncooperative. 2. Overly critical. 3. Anxious, withdrawn. 4. Poor at solving disputes.
What are the characteristics of a controversial child? (2)
1. Mixed behaviors. 2. Prosocial, but only towards some.
What are the characteristics of a neglected child? (3)
1. Shy, withdrawn. 2. Has interests other than peers. 3. Don't call attention to themselves.
Rejected children are more likely to be what?
More lonely, depressed, and socially anxious.
Rejected children are at risk for?
Dropping out, antisocial behaviors, depression.
What type of parenting leads to positive peer relations? (2)
1. Secure attachment. 2. Authoritative parenting.
Are more attractive children more popular from elementary school on?
What cognitive skills lead to positive peer relations? (2)
1. Perspective taking skills. 2. Academic competence.
Do social skills lead to positive peer relations?
Yes, they are the strongest predictors of peer relations.
Is coaching social skills effective in the long-term?
Do parents who encourage peer relations have children with better social skills?
When does bullying peak?
In early adolescence.