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1

How do Information Processing theorists see cognitive development?

As occurring continuously, in small increments that happen at different ages on different tasks.

2

Which theory compares the mind to a computer?

Information-processing theory.

3

How do information-processing theorists believe that processing capabilities in children are limited? (3)

1. By processing speed. 2. By memory. 3. By meta-cognition.

4

What are rates of forgetting in children as compared to adults?

The same.

5

What is the importance of the fact that child chess experts outperform novice adults? (2)

1. Thinking is domain-specific. 2. Knowledge effects can over-ride age effects.

6

In the information-processing view, how does cognitive development occur? (3)

Through gradually surmounting their processing limitations through. 1. Expanding the amounts of info they can process at one time. 2. Increasing their processing speeds. 3. Acquiring new strategies and knowledge.

7

Which theory believes kids are "universal novices"?

The information-processing theory.

8

According to the Social-cultural perspective, are cognitive processes universal or culturally specific?

They care culturally specific.

9

What are cultural tools?

The innumerable products of human ingenuity that enhance thinking.

10

What are examples of cultural tools? (4)

1. Symbol systems. 2. Artifacts. 3. Skills. 4. Values. Language.

11

What is social scaffolding?

A process in which more competent people provide a temporary framework that supports children's thinking at a higher level than children could manage on their own.

12

Which theory see children as "little scientists"?

The core theories model (theory-theory).

13

How does the core theory model (theory-theory) view learning?

Children constantly construct theories which may start with innate knowledge.

14

Does the core theory model (theory-theory) think that children build domain universal or domain specific theories?

Domain specific.

15

Which theory believes that we evolved to search for causality in the world?

The core theory model (theory-theory).

16

According to the core theory model (theory-theory), children start with what three foundational theories?

1. Naive Physics. 2. Naive Psychology. 3. Naive Biology.

17

What is the overlapping waves theory?

An information-processing approach that emphasizes the variability of children's thinking. Children use different strategies, not the same one, and not always the best one.

18

What is working memory?

Memory system that involves activity attending to, gathering, maintaining, storing, and processing information.

19

What is long-term memory?

Information retained on an enduring basis.

20

What are the three major types of executive functions?

1. Inhibiting inadvisable actions. 2. Enhancing working memory. 3. Being cognitively flexible.

21

How do executive functions enhance working memory?

Through the use of strategies.

22

How can executive functions be improved?

Via the Tools of the mind program.

23

Which theory emphasizes the shift from initial models to synthetic models to scientific models?

The core theory model (theory-theory).

24

Which theory emphasizes that children are active problem solvers?

Information-processing theory.

25

According to the information-processing theory, when do children begin to use broad strategies?

Around 5-8.

26

[Information-Processing] What is selective attention?

The process of intentionally focusing on the information that is most relevant to the current goal. Used as a strategy.

27

What is the Flanker task?

A set of response inhibition tests used to assess the ability to suppress responses that are inappropriate in a particular context.