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Flashcards in Prenatal Development and the Newborn Deck (69)
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1

What is epigenesis? (Aristotle)

The emergence of new structures and functions in the course of development.

2

What are the three stages of prenatal development?

1. Germinal. 2. Embryo. 3. Fetal.

3

When does the germinal stage occur? (time-wise)

From 0-2 weeks.

4

What are the major achievements of the germinal stage? (2)

1. Rapid cell division. 2. Attachment to uterine wall.

5

When does the germinal stage start and end (as marked by achievements)?

Start: Conception. End: Attachment to uterine wall.

6

When does the embryo stage occur? (time-wise).

2nd to 8th week.

7

When does the embryo stage start and end (as marked by achievements).

Start: Attachment to uterine wall. End: Formation of bone cells.

8

What are the major achievements of the embryo stage? (4)

1. Growth (1/4in-1in). 2. Cell differentiation. 3. Major organs formed. 4. Movement.

9

When does the fetal stage occur?

8th-38th week.

10

When does the fetal stage start and end (as marked by achievements)?

Start: Formation of bone cells. End: Birth.

11

What are the major achievements of the fetal stage? (4)

1. Growth. 2. Movement felt by mother. 3. Hearing. 4. Sensitive to light.

12

What determines the differentiation of stem cells? (3)

1. Location. 2. Neighboring cells. 3. Which genes are switched on.

13

What does not determine the differentiation of a stem cell?

Stage of development.

14

What is a neural tube? What does it become?

A groove formed in the top layer of differentiated cells in the embryo that eventually becomes the brain and spinal cord.

15

What is the amniotic sac?

A transparent, fluid-filled membrane that surrounds and protects the fetus.

16

What is the placenta?

A support organ for the fetus; permits selective materials to be transported from mom to fetus.

17

What is the umbilical cord?

A tube containing the blood vessels connecting the fetus and placenta.

18

What is cephalocaudal development?

The pattern of growth in which areas near the head develop earlier than areas farther from the head.

19

Does the embryo differentiate? If so? How?

Yes. It differentiates into three layers.

20

What is Thalidomide?

Teratogen that influences limb development.

21

What is a sonogram used for? (2)

1. Determine the age of the fetus. 2. Check development of heart rate; structures, etc.

22

When does growth slow?

At around 7 months.

23

What is the current age of viability?

22-26 weeks.

24

What is the average birth length?

20in.

25

What is the average birth weight?

7 pounds.

26

Does father elements affect the child's development (from conception)?

Yes, age, and stress.

27

What is the APGAR assessment?

Quick assessment of the infant after birth.

28

What are the five scales of the APGAR assessment?

Appearance, Grimace, Activity, Reflexes.

29

What is meant by the activity scale?

Muscle tone.

30

What is the United States rate of infant mortality?

5.8 death / 1,000 births.