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Flashcards in Blood Deck (72):
1

Where os the extracellular fluid in the body found

In plasma and insterstital fluid

2

Where is blood found

Capillaries
Peripheral arteries
Heart and lungs
Peripheral veins

3

What is blood made up of

Formed elements and plasma

4

What is plasma composed of

Water, proteins, nutrients and salts

5

How can blood be separated

By being spun in a centrifuge

6

What is serum

The fluid left after clotting factors have been removed from the blood

7

What are the proteins found in the blood

Serum albumin, clotting factors and complement components

8

Where are the proteins found in blood made

The liver

9

Role of albumin

Maintaining osmotic pressure

10

What are erythrocytes

Red blood cells

11

Why are mature RBCs not true cell

They contain no organelles or nucleus

12

What is 1/3rd of the volume of RBCs taken up by

Haemoglobin

13

What is haemoglobin

An iron-containing protein

14

What allows RBCs to deform

They contain a network of flexible cytoskeletal elements

15

What is the function of haemoglobin

To pick up oxygen in the lungs and deliver it to the tissues of the body

16

Haemoglobin + oxygen =

Oxyhaemoglobin

17

How is CO2 transported

Dissolved in the plasma and some bound to haemoglobin

18

How are aged RBCs removed

By the liver and spleen

19

What is a stack of RBCs called and what can it indicate

Rouleau and can indicate disease

20

What are the different types of white blood cells

Neutrophils
Lymphocytes
Eosinophils
Monocytes
Basophils

21

What are neutophils

Granulocytes

22

What does the cytoplasm of neutrophils contain

Granules

23

What is the other name for neutrophils and why

Polymonphonuclear leukyoctes and due to their prominent, multi-lobed nucleus

24

Function of neutophils

Stimulated by bacteria or inflammation to become highly motile phagocytes that ingest bacteria or damaged cells

25

What is within the granules of neutrophils

Numerous enzymes and microbial agents

26

Where are Es released from

The bone marrow

27

What is the path of Es

They circulate in the blood and then move into a tissue where they will live

28

What are the most common organs for Es to live in

Spleen, lymph node and GI tract

29

Nucleus of Es

Bilobed

30

What do Es contains

Variety of hydrolytic enzymes and have a variety of surface receptors

31

Function of Es

Inducting and maintaining inflammation
Important in fighting parasitic infection

32

Nucleus of B

Bilobed but often obscured by granules

33

What do granules in Bs contain

Histomine, heparin and inflammatory mediators

34

Function of Bs

Effector cells in allergic reactions

35

What cells are Bs similar to

Mast cells

36

What do the granules of mast cells contain

Heparin and histamie

37

What cell receptors do Bs and mast cells have

IgE receptors

38

What do both Bs and mast cells participate in

Immediate hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions

39

Where are Ms found

In the bone marrow and blood

40

What are Ms

The precursors to tissue macrophages

41

What do Ms and macrophages form

The mononuclear phagocyte system

42

Where are macrophages mostly found

In loose connective tisse

43

Nucleus of macrophages

Non-lobulated nucleus

44

What are some resident macrophages

Kupffer cells - liver
Microglia - brain

45

Nucleus of Ls

Round

46

What are the two classes of L

B cells and T cells

47

Where do B and T cells arise

In the bone marrow

48

Where do B and T cells mature

B - bone marrow
T - thymus

49

What do B and T cells participate in

Specific immune response

50

What do B cells give rise to

Antibody secreting plasma cells

51

What do T cells form

A complex set of cells that perform many defence functions

52

What are platelets

Small cell fragments

53

Roles of platelets

Haemostasis, extrusion of granules and clot retraction

54

Characteristics of platelets

Well developed cytoskeleton, mitochondria, occasional golgi and ribosomes, but no nuclues

55

What do the granules within platelets include

Coagulation factors

56

What do platelets induce the production of

Fibrin

57

Sites of blood formation

Embryonic - liver and spleen
After birth - bone marrow
Mature skeleton - vertebrae, ribs, skull, pelvis and proximal femur

58

What happens to the marrow in bones not producing blood cells

It becomes mostly adipose tissue

59

What are totipotent stem cells

Can form all of the cell types of the adult plus and extra embryonic tissues

60

What are pluripotent stem cells

Can give rise to all functional cell types

61

What are multipotent stem cells

Give rise to restricted set of cell types

62

What are committed progenerator cells

Can give rise to only one cell type

63

What can all stem cells produce

Themselves

64

Erythrocyte formation

Develop in the bone marrow from a stem cell
Mature through a series of steps that include the production of haemoglobin and extrusion of the nucleus
Cell is now a reticulocyte due to the RNA granules
Circulate in the blood stream for 1-2 days then RNA is lost
Mature RBC is now formed

65

What are megakaryocytes

Giant cells found within the bone marrow

66

What do megakaryocytes produce

Platelets

67

What controls the production of blood cells

Hormones and growth factors

68

What are some systemic actors controlling the production of blood cells

Interleukins and erythropoietin

69

What produces interleukins

Leukocytes as well as other cells

70

What produces erythropoietin

Kidney

71

What are the stages of blood cell production

Proliferation, differentiation and maturation

72

What is the blood-brain barrier induced by

Astrocytes