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Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (25):
1

Functions of the respiratory system

- Supplies oxygen to the blood for delivery to cells throughout the body
- Removes carbon dioxide that has accumulated in the blood from the tissue
- Phonation
- Olfaction
- Lungs function in blood pressure control via renin-agniotensin system

2

Nasal cavity provides an area for

Warming, moistening and filtering inspired air

3

What does the roof of the nasal cavity contain

Specialised olfactory epithelium

4

What is the name for the initial area of the nasal cavity

The vestibule

5

Epithelium lining of the vestibule

Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium

6

What happens to the epithelium deeper into the nasal cavity

The keratin is lost

7

What epithelium lines nearly all of the conducting part of the respiratory system

Respiratory epithelium

8

What is respiratory epithelium

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

9

What is located under the respiratory epithelium

Lamina propria

10

Make up of the lamina propria

A band of connective tissue containing seromucous glands and a rich venous plexus which can quickly engorge with blood to block the nose

11

What epithelium lines the oropharynx

Non-keraratinised stratified squamous epithelium

12

Composition of the walls of the larynx

Cartilage and muscle with respiratory epithelium lining everywhere bar the vocal folds

13

What epithelium covers the vocal folds

Stratified squamous epithelium

14

Characteristics of the trachea

- Contains C shaped cartilage rings
- Open side of cartilage ring is spanned by fibroelastic tissue and muscle

15

Walls of the tracheal

Respiratory epithelium backed by a basal lamina, a lamina propria of connective tissue with abundant elastic fibres and a submucosa of connective tissue that contain seromucous glands

16

How the the cartilage arranged in the bronchi

Irregularly shaped cartilage plates

17

The walls of the bronchus

Respiratory epithelium, a lamina propria, a muscularis containing a ring of smooth muscle and a submucosa with adipose tissue and seromucous glands

18

Bronchioles

- Lack cartilage and glands
- Contain a few goblet cells
- Epithelium becomes cuboidal
- Lamina propria is composed of smooth muscle and elastic and collagen fibres

19

What does the smooth muscle of the bronchioles respond to

Parasympathetic innervation, histamine and other factors

20

Terminal bronchioles

- Lined with cuboidal ciliated epithelium
- Contains non-cuboidal club cells

21

Roles of club cells

- Stem cells
- Detoxification
- Immune modulation
- Surfactant production

22

Alveoli

- Terminal portions of the bronchial tree
- Consist of type I and type I pneumonocytes
- Type I - simple squamous epithelium that provide minimal thickness that is permeable to gases
- Type II - cuboidal epithelium covered by microvilli that secretes surfactant
- Alveolar macrophages are free cells that ingest inhaled particles that have escaped entrapment of mucosal lining of respiratory tree

23

What permeates the septa of the alveoli

Capillary networks

24

What does the air-blood barrier consist of

Type I cells, endothelial cells, and the basal lamina of each

25

Make up of the visceral pleura

- Outer layer of squamous epithelium called mesothelium
- Backed by layers of fibrous and elastic connective tissue