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Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (69):
1

Non-hormonal function of the urinary tract

Production, storage and voiding of urine

2

Function of the kidneys and urinary tract

Maintaining water and electrolyte balance, body fluid osmolarity, acid-base balance, excrete toxic metabolic waste products and produce renin and erythropoetion

3

Where is the kidney

In the retroperitoneal area

4

What covers the kidney

Thin but strong capsule

5

What is the capsule composed of

Dense collagen fibres

6

What enters/exits at the hilum of the kidney

Renal artery - enters
Renal vein and ureter - exit

7

Structures of the kidney

Renal pelvis, major calyces and minor calyces

8

Two main areas of the kidney

Medulla and cortex

9

What is the medulla divided into

Medullary pyramids

10

Where do the apices of the medullary pyramids point to

The hilum of the kidney

11

What are the apices of the medullary pyramids called

Papillae

12

What is each medullary pyramid and associated tissue known as

A lobe of the kidney

13

What is the capsule of the kidney continuos with

The connective tissue that lines the renal sinuses

14

What are medullary rays

Collections of collecting ducts and the straight segments of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules

15

Where are the medullary rays found

In the cortex

16

What provides the vascular supply to the kidney

Anterior and posterior branches of the renal artery, interlobar, interlobular and arcuate arteries and afferent arterioles

17

What is the basic functional unit of the kidneys

The nephron

18

What is the nephron composed of

Renal corpuscle and renal tubules

19

What is the principle role of the renal corpsucle

Production and collection of glomerular filtrate

20

What is the renal corpuscle formed of

A tuft of capillaries and a cup of simple squamous epithelium

21

What is the tuft of capillaries known as

The glomerulus

22

What is the cup of simple squamous epithelium known as

The bowman's capsule

23

What is the glomerulus supplied by

An afferent arteriole

24

What is the glomerulus drained by

An efferent arteriole

25

What are the two cell layers that separate the blood from the glomerular filtrate

Capillary endothelium and podocytes

26

What are podocytes

Epithelial cells that are part of the specialised epithelium that lies on top of the glomerular filtrate

27

What type of epithelium do the podocytes make

Fenestrated epithelium with pores

28

What do the interdigitating cell process of the podocytes make

Filtration slits

29

What is between the podocytes and enodthelium of capillaries

A thicker than usual basal lamina made up of GAGs

30

What do scattered mesangial cells produce

Connective tissue core called a mesangium

31

Function of mesangium

Support and removal of debris

32

What is the glomerular filtrate

An ultrafiltrate of plasma

33

What are the three components of the glomerular filtrate

Fenestrated endothelium of the capillaries, thick basement membrane and filtration slits between podocytes

34

What is the principle role of the proximal convoluted tubule

Reabsorption of water, proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and glucose

35

The proximal convoluted tubule leads to

The proximal straight tubule

36

How to sodium reabsorbed

Active transport

37

How is water reabsorbed

Diffusion

38

How is glucose and carbohydrates reabsorbed

Cotransport

39

Proximal vs distal convoluted tubules

P are larger and have a well defined margin due to the presence of a brush border

40

Principle role of loop of Henle

Creation of hypertonic environment in the medulla

41

What are the loops of blood vessels in the medulla called

The vasa recta

42

What are the structures found in the outer medulla

Collecting ducts, blood vessels of the vasa recta, thin limb of the loop of Henle and the proximal and distal straight tubules

43

Principle role of distal convoluted tubule

Controlling acid-base and water balance

44

Border of distal convoluted tubules

Sparse microvilli

45

What controls reabsorption of Na+ in the distal convoluted tubule

Aldosterone

46

What secretes aldosterone

The adrenal cortex

47

What controls aldosterone secretion

The renin-angiotensin system

48

Are the collecting ducts part of the nephron

No

49

What do the collecting ducts and tubules do

Participate in controlled reabsorption of water under the control of ADH

50

What increases the collecting ducts permeability to water

Vasopressin

51

What secretes vasopressin

Posterior pituitary

52

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus

A specialised site where the distal convoluted tubule passes adjacent to the vascular pole of the same renal corspuscle

53

What are the three components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus

Macula densa, juxtaglomerular cells and extraglomerular mesangial cells/lacis cells

54

Cells of the distal convoluted tubule

Tall, crowed together and the nuclei stain intensly

55

Function of macula densa

Sensing sodium content

56

What are the juxtaglomerular cells

Modified smooth muscle cells

57

What do the juxtaglomerular cells contain

Renin

58

What are the lacis cells

Modified mesangial cells extending outside the renal corpuscle

59

Function of lacis cells

Signalling that alters glomerular filtration

60

Urine produced in the renal papillae is collected in

The minor calyx

61

What lines the urinary tract

Specialised epithelium = transitional epithelium/urothelium

62

Characteristics of urothelium

Stratified and in 3-6 cell layers

63

Characteristics of cells facing the lumen in urothelium

Specialised, thickened and inflexible membrane

64

What lines the lumen of the ureter

Transitional epithelium

65

Smooth muscle layers near the bladder

Inner longitudinal, outer circular and outer longitudinal

66

What do the smooth muscle layers form within the bladder

Detrusor muscle

67

Function of detrusor muscle

Micturition

68

What innervates the bladder

Parasympathetic ganglia

69

Lining of female urethra

Transitional epithelium and then stratified squamous near surface of body