Connective Tissue Flashcards Preview

Histology > Connective Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Connective Tissue Deck (60):
1

Why is connective unusual to other major tissues

It consists of cells embedded in large quantities of extracellular matrix

2

What is extracellular matrix composed of

Protein fibres, amorphous ground substance and tissue fluid

3

Functions of connective tissue

Space filler, mechanical support, attachment, protection, highway for nutrients, main fat store, calcium store, and site of many immunological defence reactions

4

Three types of connective tissue

Soft connective tissue, herd connective tissue, and blood and lymph

5

Where so soft connective tissue found

Tendons, ligaments, mesentery, stroma of organs, and dermis of skin

6

Where is hard connective tissue found

Bone and cartilage

7

Resident cells of connective tissue

Fibroblasts, adipose cells, osteocytes, and chondrocytes

8

Fibroblasts structure

Elongated cells with tapered ends

9

Function of fibroblasts

Produce and maintain extra cellular matrix

10

What effect does damage have on fibroblasts

Causes them to proliferate

11

Adipose cell structures

Single giant fat droplet

12

What do adipose cells release

Fatty acid

13

What type of cells are the predominant cells of adipose tissue

Adipose cells

14

Where is brown fat found

Foetus and neonate

15

Structure of brown fat cells

Contain many small fat droplets and numerous mitochondria

16

When brown fat is oxidised what occurs

A large amount of heat is produced and this is known as non-shivering thermogenesis

17

Adipose tissue characteristics

Largest energy store in the body, in a constant state of turnover and is sensitive to both hormonal and nervous stimuli

18

Intermediate cell found during wound healing

Myofibroblast

19

What actions do myofibroblast carry out during wound repair

They cause wound contraction by producing collagen fibres and tugging on them to draw together the wound margins

20

What cells are immigrant cells

Leukocytes and mast cells

21

Types of leukocytes

Lymphocytes, plasma cells, granulocytes and macrophages

22

Where do leukocytes migrate from

The blood stream

23

What causes an increase in leukocytes

Inflammation or infection

24

What do mast cells contain

Granules of heparin, histamine and substances that stimulate inflammation and attract white blood cells

25

What is responsible for the symptoms of an allergic reaction

Histamine

26

What type of leukocyte leaves the blood stream in response to infection

Neutrophils

27

What type of leukocyte is found in increased number during allergic reactions and parasitic diseases

Eosinophils

28

What transient cells are found in connective tissue

Macrophages

29

Characteristics of macrophages

- Derived from monocytes in the bone marrow
- Transform into macrophages in the connective tissue
- Can proliferate locally
- Are phagocytic cells
- Have a body wide distribution

30

What does the presence of histamine cause

Increased permeability of small blood vessels and increased mucous production and smooth muscle contraction in airways

31

What is the smallest cell present in connective tissue

Lymphocytes

32

Composition of lymphocytes

Small nucleus with almost no cytoplasm

33

Where are large numbers of lymphocytes found

In the gut

34

What do B lymphocytes give rise to

Plasma cells

35

Where are plasma cells likely to be found

Site of infection

36

Composistion of plasma cells

Large oval cells, rich in rough ER and a basophilic cytoplasm

37

What is the function of plasma cells

To synthesis antibodies found in the blood stream

38

What actions are causes by plasma cells

Neutralise harmful antigens, render toxins harmless, promote phagocytosis and protect the body from micro-organisms

39

What are the fibres of the extracellular matrix made up of

Collagen, reticular and elastic fibres

40

What is ground substance

An amorphus space occupying material

41

What is ground substance made of

Unbranched polysaccharide molecules, glycoaminoglycands (GAGs), most of which are bound to a protein core to form glycoproteins

42

What synthesises collagen

Fibroblasts

43

Characteristics of collagen

Inelastic and the most common form (type I) has a tensile strength similar to mild steel, making a tissue which is both flexible and strong

44

Characteristics of reticular fibres

Thin fibres made of type II collagen that forms a support network in many organs

45

In which organs can you find reticular fibres

Liver, lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow

46

Characteristic of elastic fibres

- Provide elasticity
- Made of elastin and the microfibril fibrilin
- Provide blood vessels with elastic recoil

47

Characteristics of GAGs

- Linear polysaccharides bound, covalently, to a protein core, forming a preoteoglycan molecule
- Intensly hydrophillic due to presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and sulphate groups
- Trap water so are resistant to compression

48

What do GAGs provide for the extracellular matrix

Turgor and determine the diffusion of substances through the matrix

49

Function of structural glycoproteins

Bind molecules on the surface of cells as well as extracellular matrix components so establish structural continuity between cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix

50

Most common glycoproteins

Fibronectin, laminin, and chondronectin

51

Function of fibronectin

Bind ECM to ECM

52

Where is laminin found

Basal lamina

53

Where is chondronectin found

In cartilage

54

Types of soft connective tissue

Mesenchyme, loose connective tissue, desne regular connective tissue and dense irregular connective tissue

55

Mesenchyme

Embryonic connective tissue that differentiates into cells that become fibroblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes and osteocytes

56

Loose connective tissue

Loosely packed fibres separated by abundant ground substance

57

Where is loose connective tissue found

Mesentery, adipose tissue, stroma of many organs

58

What is loose connective tissue also known as

Areolar tissue

59

Dense regular connective tissue

Densely packed aligned collagen fibres

60

Dense irregular connective tissue

Densely packed collagen fibres that run in many directions