Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

Histology > Female Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (115):
1

Functions of the ovary

Production of gametes and produce steroids

2

What steroids are produced by the ovaries

Oestrogen and progesterone

3

Structure of the ovary

Made up of a cortex and medulla

4

What does the medulla form

The core of the organ

5

What does the medulla contain

Loose connective tissue, contorted arteries, veins and lymphatics

6

What is within the cortex

Scattered ovarian follices within a highly cellular connective tissue stroma

7

What is the outer shell of the cortex made up of

Dense connective tissue layer

8

What is the outer layer of the cortex known as

The tunica albuginea

9

What covers the tunica albuginea

Single layer of cuboidal cells called the germinal layer

10

What forms oogina

Germ cells from the yolk sac invading the ovaries and proliferating by mitosis

11

What do developed oogonia form

Mature oocytes

12

What is oogenesis

The development of oocytes from oogenia

13

What is folliculogenesis

The growth of the follicle

14

What does the follicle consist of

The oocyte and associated supporting cells

15

What is atresia

The loss of oogina and oocytes via an apoptosis-based process

16

What happens following cell death

The cell is reapsorbed

17

At what stage of meiosis do the oocytes halt at

Prophase I

18

If an oocytes fails to associate with pregranulosa cells what occurs

It will die

19

What shape are the inactive pregranulosa cells

Squamous

20

What happens to the shape of the pregranulosa cells when the follicles are active

Cuboidal

21

What defines the primary follicle

Cuboidal granulosa cells

22

What are the cuboidal gransulosa cells of the primary follicle known as

The zona granulosa

23

What cells associate outside the primary follicle

Stromal cells

24

What do the stromal cells go on to form

The theca folliculi

25

What is the zona pellucida

A layer of specialised extracellular matrix between the oocyte and granulosa cells

26

What do the inner cells of the theca follicle form and how

The theca interna and by undergoing epitheloid transformation

27

What does the theca interna secrete

Oestrogen precursors

28

What converts the oestrogen precursor to oestrogen

Granulosa cells

29

What does the outer layer of the theca follicle form

The theca externa

30

What does the granulosa cell layer express

Receptors for follicle-stimulating hormones

31

What do the theca intera cells express

Receptors for lutenising hormone

32

What secretes lutenising hormone

The anterior pituitary

33

What is a major role of the follicle

Production of hormones

34

What does the theca interna produce

Androgens

35

What happens to the androgens

They diffuse across the basal lamina and are converted to oestrogen by the granulosa cells

36

As the follicle enlarges what space is formed

The antrum

37

What fluid fills the antrum

Follicular fluid

38

What are the largest antrum follicles called

Graafian follicles

39

What is the cumulus oophorus

The mound of cells extending from the wall of the follicle and surrounding the oocyte

40

What happens one day before ovulation

The oocyte in the largest graafian follicle will complete meiosis I

41

What is the polar body

The secondary nucleus from the end of meiosis I that is taken away to degenerate

42

When does the secondary oocyte complete meiosis

When it is released and fertilised by a sperm

43

Prior to release the follicle creates a bulge in the ovary known as

Follicular stigma

44

What happens to the follicle after ovulation

It transforms into the corpus luteum

45

Once the follicle becomes the corpus luteum what are the theca and granulosa cells known as

The theca lutein cells and granulosa lutein cells

46

What do the theca lutein and granulosa lutein cells secrete

Oestrogen and progesterone

47

What does the secretion of oestrogen and progesterone help with

The preparation of the uterus for implantation

48

What occurs if no implantation occurs

The corpus luteum becomes a white coloured connective tissue called the corpus albicans

49

What occurs if implantation occurs

The placenta secretes HCG which prevents degeneration of the corpus luteum and maintains progesterone levels

50

What are the uterine tubes also known as

Oviducts or fallopian tubes

51

Where does the infundibulum move to

The site where the follicle will rupture from the ovary

52

What propells the ovum through the fallopian tubes

Gentle peristalsis and currents created by cilliated epithelium

53

What do secretory cells in the fallopian tubes secrete

Nutrients

54

Where does fertilisation usually occur

In the ampulla

55

Where is the fertilised ovum transported to

The uterus

56

Structure of the mucous in the ampulla

Folded and lined by simple columnar epithelium with cilliated and secretory cells

57

What surround the ampulla

Smooth muscle

58

How many layers of smooth muscle coat the ampulla and isthmus

Ampulla - 2
Isthums - 3

59

What is the endometrium

An inner secretory mucosa

60

What makes up the endometrium

Tubular secretory glands embedded in connective tissue stroma

61

What makes up the myometrium

3 layers of smooth muscle combined with collagen and elastic tissue

62

What is the perimetrium

An outer visceral covering of loose connective tissue covered my mesothelium

63

What is the two layers of the endometrium

The stratum functionalis and stratum basalis

64

What is the functionalis

It undergoes constant growth, loss and degeneration

65

What is the function of basalis

To regenerate the functionalis

66

What happens during the proliferative phase

The stratum basalis proliferates and glands, stroma and vasculature grow

67

What lines the glands

Pseudostratified columnar epthlium

68

When does the proliferative phase end

One day after ovulation

69

What happens during the secretory phase

The glands become coiled and secrete glycogen

70

What happens during the menstrual phase

Arterioles in the stratum functionalis undergo constriction, depriving the tissue of blood and causing ischemia, with resultant tissue breakdown, leakage of blood and sloughing

71

What is the cervix

A short cylinder with a small lumen that projects into the upper vagina

72

What is the cervix made up of

Mostly fibrous connective tissue covered by stratified squamous epithelium on its vaginal surface and transitioning to mucous secreting simple columnar epithlieum

73

What is the transitioning zone within the cervix known as

The squamocolumnar junction

74

Characteristic of the mucous secreting epithelium

The canal is deeply furrowed, forming glands known as endocervical glands

75

What is the secretion of the endocervical glands like in the proliferative phase

Watery and thin

76

What is the secretion of the endocervical glands like after ovulation

Thick and viscous

77

How many layers make up the vagina

4

78

What are the layers of the vagina

Non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelium
Lamina propria
Fibromuscular layer
Adventitia

79

What happens to the epithelial layer of the vagina during reproductive years

It is thicker and the cells are enlarged due to glycogen accumulation

80

What is the composition of the lamina propria of the vagina

Connective tissue rich in elastic fibres and thin walled blood vessels

81

What is the make up of the fibromuscular layer of the vagina

Inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle

82

What lubricates the wall of the vagina

Mucous from the cervical glands and fluid from the thin walled blood vessels of the lamina propria

83

What metabolises the glycogen and what does it become

The commensal bacteria and it becomes lactic acid

84

What is the function of lactic acid within the vagina

The inhibition of the growth of pathogenic bacteria

85

What is the mons pubis

Skin which contains highly oblique hair follicles, overlying a substantial subcutaneous fat pad which overlies the pubic symphysis

86

What is the labia majora

An extension of the mons pubis

87

Structure of the labia majora

Rich in aprocine sweat glands and sebaceous glands with bundles of smooth muscle

88

Structure of the labia minora

Skin folds that lack subcutaneous fat and hair follicles, but are rich in vasculature and sebaceous glands

89

What does the clitoris contain

Two tubes of erectile vascular tissue

90

What covers the erectile tissue

A fibrocollagenous sheath covered by skin with rich innervation and a thin epidermis

91

What is the breast

A subcutaneous gland

92

What gland are within the secretory tissue of the breast

Compound tubulo-acinar glands

93

How do the glands of the breast get drained

Via a series of ducts leading to the nipple

94

What is adjacent to the secretory tissue of the breast

Dense fibrous tissue, which is surrounded by adipose tissue

95

What is within the fibrous connective tissue of the breats

Large condensations that extend from the dermis of the skin to the deep fascia of the overlying muscle - suspensory ligaments

96

What is the basic secretory unit of the breast

The terminal duct lobular unit

97

What duct leads to the nipple

The lactiferous duct

98

What is found within the lobule of the breast

Extralobular and intralobular ducts, rudimentary secretory acini and dense fibrocollagenous connective tissue

99

What of the secretory cells of the acini surrounded by

Myoepithelial cells

100

What are myoepithelial cells

Contractile epithelial cells

101

What lines the larger ducts of the breast

Thin stratified squamous to stratified cuboidal

102

Structure of the nipple

Wrinkled surface covered by a thin, highly pigmented keratinised stratified squamous epithelium

103

What comprises the core of the nipple

Dense irregular connective tissue mixed with bundles of smooth muscle

104

Lining of the lactiferous duct

Near surface - stratified squamous
Deeper - stratified cuboidal epithelium
Deeper still - one cell thick lining

105

When do changes in breast occurs

In the menstrual phase, luteal phase and during pregnancy

106

Changes that occurs in the breast during luteal phase

The epithelial cells increase in height, the lamina of the ducts become enlarged and small amounts of secretions appear in the ducts

107

Changes that occur in the first trimester of pregnancy in the breast

Elongation and branching of the smaller ducts, combined with proliferation of the epithelial cells of the glands and the myoepithelial cells

108

Changes that occur in the breast in the second trimester

Glandular tissue continues to develop with differentiation of secretory alveoli

109

Changes that occur in the breast in the third trimester

Secretory alveoli continue to mature, with development of extensive rER

110

What does the presence of oestrogen and progesterone in pregnancy cause

Stimulate proliferation of secretory tissue and fibro-fatty tissue becomes sparse

111

Composition of maternal milk

Water, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids - main components
Ions, vitamins and IgA antibodies - small quantities

112

How are lipid droplets in milk secreted

They are surrounded by a membrane and carry a small amount of cytoplasm away - apocrine secretion

113

How are proteins made and secreted

Made in the rER and packed in the golgi apparatus and secreted via vesicles which merge with the apical membrane to release their contents - merocrine secretion

114

What happens following the menopause

The secretory cells of the tubular duct lobule units degenerate leaving only ducts

115

What happens to the connective tissue after menopause

Fewer fibroblasts and reduce collagen and elastic fibres