Digestive Tract Flashcards Preview

Histology > Digestive Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive Tract Deck (41):
1

Epithelium of oral cavity, oropharynx and laryngopharynx

Stratified non-keratinised squamous epithelium

2

Epithelium of nasal cavity and nasopharynx

Respiratory epithelium

3

Digestive tract 4 main layers

Mucosa, submuscosa, muscualris externa and serosa or adventitia

4

What are the 3 layers of the muscosa

Epithelium, lamina propria and muscularis mucosae

5

Mucosa epithelium

Sits on a basal lamina

6

Mucosa lamina propria

Loose connective tissue

7

Mucosa muscularis muscosae

Thin layer of smooth muscle

8

Submucosa

Loose connective tissue

9

Muscularis externa

Two thick layers of smooth muscle, an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer

10

Serosa

Outer layer of connective tissue that either suspends the digestive tract or attaches it to other organs

11

Gastro-oesophageal junction

Abrupt transition from stratified squamous epithelium to simple columnar epithelium

12

Mucosa of the stomach is made up of

Gastric pits and gastric glands

13

Cells of the gastric gland

Isthumus - Parietal and stem cells
Neck - Mucous and parietal cells
Fundus - Chief cells, few parietal cells and enteroendocrine cells

14

Chief cells

Digestive enzyme secreting cells

15

Parietal cells

Hydrochloric acid producing cells

16

Different regions of the stomach

Cardia, body and pylorus

17

Mucosa of cardia

Deep gastric pits that branch into loosely packed tortuous glands

18

Mucosa of body

Shallow gastric pits with long straight gastric glands

19

Mucosa of body

Deep gastric pits with branched, coiled gastric glands

20

Muscularis externa of the stomach

- Contains an extra layer
- Oblique to the circular and longitudinal layers
- Located internal to circular layer
- Aids in the churning action of the stomach

21

Gastroduodenal junction

Abrupt transition from stomach mucosa to duodenal mucosa

22

Duodenum

Contains Brunner's glands in the submucosa

23

Jejunum

Tallest villi, located on permanent circular folds of the mucosa and submucosa

24

What are the circular folds of the small intestine known as

Plicae circularis

25

Ileum

Characteristic by shorter villi and aggregations of lymphoid follicles

26

What are the lymphoid follicules of the ileum known as

Peyer's patches

27

Enterocytes

Tall columnar cells with a brush border and are the principle absorptive cell

28

Goblet cells

Produce mucin to protect epithelium and lubricate passage of material

29

Paneth cells

Found at the base of the crypts of Lieberkuhn, they have a defensive function

30

Neuroendocrine cells

Produce hormones that contribute to control of secretion and motility

31

Stem cells

Found at the base of the crypts of Lieberkuhn, the divide to replenish the epithelium

32

Function of Brunner's glands

Produce a thin, alkalin mucous to neutralise chyme

33

Two principle cells of the large intestine

Absorptive cells and goblet cells

34

Absorptive cells of the large intestine

Removal of slats and water

35

Goblet cells of the large intestine

Secretion of mucus to lubricate the colon

36

How are the cells of the large intestine arranged

Straight tubular glands referred to as crypts that extend into the muscualris mucosae

37

How is the outer longitudinal muscle layer of the large intestine arranged

In 3 muscular strips = teniae coli

38

Appendix

- Far less abundant crypts
- Circular arrangement of lymphoid tissue
- Lymphoid tissue tends to decline with age

39

Rectoanal junction

Transition from the mucosa of the rectum to the non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelium of the anal canal

40

What controls gut motility

The enteric nervous system

41

What are the plexuses of the enteric nervous system

Myenteric plexus and submucosal plexus