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Flashcards in Special Senses Deck (48):
1

Types of cells within a taste bud

Sensory cells/taste receptor cell, supporting/sustenitacular cells and basal cells

2

Taste receptor cells

Apical microvilli with chemoreceptors at the apical pore

3

Sustentactular cells

Supporting sensory cells
May also be a stage in the development of the sensory cells

4

Basal cells of the taste bud

Act a stem cells

5

What happens when an appropriate chemical enters the taste pore

It binds and its receptor causes a release of a neurotransmitter from the sensory cells that stimulate sensory nerve endings

6

5 different tastes

Sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umani

7

Olfactory epithelium

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

8

Cell types of olfactory epithelium

Olfactory receptor cells, support cells, receptor cells and basal cells

9

Olfactory receptor cells

Bipolar neurones and their nuclei are typically in the middle

10

Support cells of olfactory epithelium

Provide mechanical and metabolic support to the neurones
Nuclei in the basal part of epithelium

11

Basal cells of olfactory epithelium

Act as stem cells
Nuclei in the basal part of the epithelium

12

Receptor cells of olfactory epithelium

Have an olfactory vesicle that extends above the epithelium with non-motile cilia attached
Receptors on the cilia respond to odorants that we can detect and depolarise the cell, producing an action potential

13

Path of axons from olfactory receptor cells

Out of epithelium in bundles, through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and into the olfactory bulb

14

What do the olfactory support cells secrete

Odorant binding proteins and enzymes that have a role in deactivating odorants to terminate their effect

15

What does the olfactory mucosa consist of

Olfactory epithelium and the underlying lamina propria

16

Lamina propria of olfactory mucosa

Contains connective tissue, blood vessels for warming the air, Bowman's glands and bundles of axons

17

Function of Bowman's glands

Produce a serous secretion that is released at the surface via ducts and dissolves odorants

18

Type of gland of Bowman's gland

Tuboalveolar gland

19

What is the pinna of the ear and external auditory meautus covered by

Epidermis

20

Characteristic of ear canal

Hairy skin with sebaceous glands and modified apocrine sweat glands

21

Name of modified sweat glands in the ear canal

Cervminous glands

22

What do the cervminous glands produce

Cervmin - a yellowish waxy substance

23

Layers of the tympanic membrane

Outer layer of thin epidermis, middle layer of collagenous connective tissue and an inner layer of simple cuboidal epithelium

24

How many turns does the cochlea undergo

2.5

25

Name for the centre of the cochlea

Modiolus

26

Ganglion in the cochlea

Spiral ganglion - made of bipolar nerve cell bodies

27

Three compartments of the cochlea

Scala vestibule, cochlear duct and scala tympani

28

Name for the very tip of cochlea and what communicates here

Helicotrema and the scala vestibule and scala tympani

29

What does sound transduce through

Hair cells within the organ of Corti

30

What does the organ of corti sit on

The basilar membrane

31

Are high or low frequencies responded to at the tip of the cochlea

Low

32

Sets of hair cells

3-5 rows of outer hair cells
1 row of inner hair cells

33

What are the support cell of the hair cells called

Phalangeal cells

34

What do vibrations in the basilar membrane cause

Specialised stereocilia on the apical ends of the hair cells to move against the overlying tectorial membrane

35

What does deformation of the stereocilia on the hair cells cause

Opening of ion channels that depolarise the hair cell which causes the release of neurotransmitters that cause action potentials in the spiral ganglion

36

What are the main hair receptors

Inner hair cells

37

How is position and motion of the head determined

Through the hair cells in the utricle, saccule and semicircular canals

38

The utricle and saccule determine

Head position

39

The semicircular canals determine

Head movement

40

Swelling within the semicircular ducts

Ampulla

41

What is within the ampulla

A sensory organ called the crista ampullaris

42

Structure of the crista ampullaris

Core of connective tissue bulging into the lumen with a covering of epithelium containing hair cells with stereocilia

43

What are the stereocilia of the CA embedded in

A dome of gelatinous material called copula

44

What is contained within the hair cells of the vestibular system

Cilium in addition to the stereocilia

45

Stereocilia + cilium =

Kinocilium

46

What are the utricle and saccule

Two swellings in the vestibule

47

What lines the utricle and saccule

Simple cuboidal epithelium with a small patch of sensory epithelium called the macule

48

What are the stereocilia of the saccule and utricle embedded in

Gelatinous layer which has crystals of calcium carbonate and protein called otoconia