C26 - The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution 1865-1896 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in C26 - The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution 1865-1896 Deck (48):
1

Mary Elizabeth Lease

Outspoken Populist speaker.

2

Granger Laws

Late 1860s/early 1870s, these laws made Railroad rates more favorable for small rural farmers.

3

James B. Weaver

Ran in Presidential election of 1880 for the Greenback Labor party.

4

eighty-niners

People who poured into Oklahoma in 1889 after the US Govt. made this fertile land available for settlers.

5

Patrons of Husbandry

Also known as the Grange: Organized in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley, a MN farmer. His goal was to enhance the lives of isolated rural farmers through social, educational and fraternal activities.

He organized picnics, lectures and concerts.

Their goals evolved as they tried to influence politics and push for laws and regulations that would benefit the small farmer. Their "Granger laws" were fought and eventually reversed in the Wabash Case in the Supreme court decision of 1886.

6

George A. Custer

US military leader who is known for great successes during the Civil War: Battle of Bull Run and Appomattox Campaigns.

He was later sent to fight in Indians wars in the west. He was killed during the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876 by Indians led by Sitting Bull.

This became known as Custer's last stand.

7

Helen Hunt Jackson

Author who wrote " A Century of Dishonor" in 1881, covering the US government's cruelty toward Native Americans.

8

Farmers' Alliance

Formed in late 1870s in Texas. Farmers came together to socialize, but mostly to break the grip of Railroaders and Manufacturers through cooperative selling.

Out of this group came the People's party, or Populists, formed in the 1890s.

9

Homestead Act

1862: Law allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it and paying a fee of $30.

Great opportunity for some farmers who wanted to settle West, but there was also a lot of corruption.

Many homesteaders couldn't make it on 160 acres because there was so little water.

10

Sioux Wars

Series of conflicts between Sioux Indians and US government from 1850s to 1890. Last was the 1890 Ghost Dance War.

11

Sitting Bull

Great Indian (Lakota) tribal leader who led Indians in their resistance to US government policies.

In 1876, he led his people to victory in the Battle of Little Bighorn against US troops led by George Armstrong Custer. After this, he fled to Canada until 1881 when he returned to the US.

Sitting Bull was killed in 1890 during a conflict in South Dakota. US govt. officials were trying to arrest him to keep him from supporting the Ghost Dance movement.

12

Greenback Labor Party

1878, this movement was at its highest. Attracted rural farmers and those interested in the lot of labor.

13

Oliver H. Kelley

founded the Grange (Natl. Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry) in 1867.

14

Comstock Lode

1859 discovery of large amount of gold and silver in Nevada.

Nevada had been scarcely populated, but was quickly made a state in 1864.

15

Nez Perc

Native American people living in Pacific Northwest.

16

Chief Joseph

Nez Perce Indian leader.

17

Ghost Dance

1884, Zealous Christians who wanted to persuade the Indians toward Christianity and military men persuaded the Federal government to outlaw the Indians' sacred sun dance.

18

Apache

Indian tribe/people.

19

Geronimo

Prominent Indian leader who fought with the Apache Indians against US and Mexican movement onto Apache lands.

20

Daws Severalty Act

1887 law that dissolved many tribes as legal entities and wiped out their land ownership. Indian families were granted some free land that they could only keep if they civilized themselves in the White man's way of life. Full citizenship was not given to all Indians until 1924.

Land not given to Indian families was given to RRs and white settlers.

21

Joseph F. Glidden

1874 he invented barbed wire, which solved the problem of how to build fences in the treeless prairies.

22

Populists

Political party formed in 1890 - emerged out of the Farmers Alliance. They attacked Wall Street and the money trusts. They called for nationalizing the railroads and telephone companies and creating a new program to provide financial help to farmers.

They also wanted free and unlimited coinage of silver, which would help people who are in debt.

Mary Elizabeth Lease was an outspoken Populist.

They argued that farmers and laborers were being victimized by an oppressive economic and political system.

23

Battle of Wounded Knee

1890: bloody battle where the US stamped out Sioux Indians.

24

Long Drive

Referred to cowboys driving cattle from the west to Railroad stops where live cattle could be herded onto RR cars and shipped to meat processing companies. After meat was processed, the meat could be loaded onto refrigerated RR cars and sold in the east.

25

Richard Olney

Attorney General under President Cleveland who sent in federal troops to put down the Pullman Strike.

26

Eugene V. Debs

Labor leader who helped organize the Pullman Strike.

He was sent to prison for 6 months for contempt of court, since he had been ordered not to strike.

27

depression of 1893

Severe financial panic which caused many, including farmers, to go bankrupt.

28

Benjamin Harrison

President from 1889 - 1893.

29

injunction

Court order

30

William McKinley

Republican - became President in 1897.

31

Gold Standard Act

1900. Said that paper money should be redeemed freely in Gold.

32

Pullman Strike

1894. Strike in Chicago. Eugene V Debs was a labor leader who helped organize the American Railway Union.

the Pullman RR Car Company had to cut wages to its workers due to the Depression, but it maintained it's model town for its workers to live in.

Workers went on strike, paralyzing RR activity across the country and even damaged some Pullman cars.

The American Federation of Labor did not support this strike.

Federal troops were sent in by Attorney General Richard Olney and President Cleveland to put down the strike.

33

free silver

Monetary policy of the Democratic party and its candidate William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 Presidential campaign.

34

"Billion Dollar" Congress

51st Congress. Had access to over $1 billion in the US Treasury as a surplus. Passed the Pension Act of 1890 to give pensions to all Union soldiers. This solved the problem of the surplus.

35

Omaha platform

1892. Platform adopted by the Populist Party...a merging of the concerns of the Farmers Alliance and the Greenback Labor Party.

36

bimetallism

x

37

bimetallism

Monetary standard that uses 2 metals - gold and silver.

38

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

1890. Passed along with the McKinley Tariff. Did not authorize free coinage of silver, but said that the US Government would buy large quantities of silver.

39

Marcus A. Hanna

Leader of the Republican National party in 1896 and leader of William McKinley's successful campaign for President.

Hanna was good at raising money from industrialists and leaders of big business and trusts.

40

Dingley Tariff

Bill signed into law in 1897 which raised the tariff in order to raise funds for the federal government.

41

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

x

42

Thomas B. Reed

Sometimes called Czar Reed. Republican Speaker of the House from 1897-1891. Served with greater influence than any speaker who had come before him...forever increased the power of this position.

43

Jim Crow Laws

1876-1965. Laws that made segregation between blacks and whites legal.

44

Jim Crow Laws

x

45

sixteen to one

x

46

Pension act

"Billion Dollar Congress" passed the Pension Act of 1890 to give pensions to all Union soldiers.

47

homestead strike

1892. Homestead, PA. Homestead Steel workers went on strike. Ended in a battle between strikers and security agents.

48

homestead strike

x

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