Flashcards in C30 - Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad 1912-1916 Deck (35):
Louis D. Brandeis
Author of 1914 book: "Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use it".
He was close to President Wilson, and his book sparked Banking Reform, which became the Federal Reserve Act, passed by Congress in 1913.
Again, passage of the law was partly due to President Wilson's leadership and speaking skills in front of Congress and directly to the people of the US.
Wilson appointed Brandeis to the Supreme Court in 1916 - Brandeis became the first Jew appointed to the S.C.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Leader of Germany at start of WW1 - 1914
John J. Pershing
US Military leader that Wilson sent to deal with the conflict in Mexico. Conflict between Villa, Carranza, and their killing of a handful of US citizens.
Mexican leader who opposed Carranza of Mexico. Killed some US Citizens.
1913: Gave Congress the power to levy an Income Tax.
Dr. Woodrow Wilson was President of Princeton U. Entered politics in 1910 when he ran for Governor in NJ.
Chosen by Democrats as their candidate in the 1912 election. Ran on strong progressive platform, called "New Freedom" program. Called for stronger antitrust laws, bank reform and tariff reduction.
Campaigned on his plan to fight against and bust what he called the unfair "triple wall of privilege": the tariff, the banks & the trusts. In his first 1.5 years in office, his leadership resulted in Congress passing laws to deal with all 3: the Tariff Bill, The Federal Reserve Act, and more laws dealing with monopolies/trusts.
Workingmen's Compensation Act
1916: Granted federal employees pay during times when they were disabled/unable to work.
Rival to Huerta in Mexico. 1914: Wilson sent Carranza and rivals of Huerta American guns for their fight.
1913: Became President of Mexico after a revolution there.
Caused many Mexicans to flee to the US. For 3 decades they settled and worked in TX, AZ, NM and CA.
In 1914 War that started in Europe, the Allies consisted of: France, Britain, Russia and later Japan and Italy.
3/1916 - this French ship was sunk by Germany.
This resulted in President Wilson demanding that Germany agree to stop the practice of sinking Merchant ships.
1914: Antitrust act. Added to the list of business practices that were considered unfair and monopolistic. Included price discrimination and interlocking directorates (same people serving on Boards of Directors of competing companies).
Another part of this law protected Labor Unions and explicitly legalized strikes and picketing. Huge win for the Labor Unions.
Federal Farm Loan Act
1916. Law pushed by Wilson - gave low-interest loans to Farmers.
Founder of a magazine "The New Republic" His views greatly influenced TR.
1915: Law that required decent treatment and a living wage for sailors on American merchant ships. Protected the sailors by crippled the merchant marine in the end as prices had to increase because of the increase in wages.
British passenger ship that was sunk in 5/1915 by a German submarine (U-boat). 1200 people died, including 130 Americans.
US was outraged.
Federal Trade Commission Act
1914: Law passed by Congress that allowed the President to appoint people to this commission. The commission would investigate and regulate all industries to root out monopolies, unfair trade practices, false advertising, etc.
Wilson's personal leadership also helped to pass this through Congress.
Underwood Tariff Bill
Passed in 1913. Very important bill that reduced the Tariff & started the Income Tax (a tax on citizens' income.
President Wilson used great leadership skills to get this bill passed in Congress.
In 1914 War that started in Europe, the Central Powers consisted of Germany and Austria-Hungary, later Turkey and Bulgaria.
1912 campaign: Roosevelt's brand of Progressivism. Favored consolidation of trusts and labor unions, along with growth of regulatory agencies in federal govt. Also favored social welfare/insurance laws.
Contrast was Wilson's "New Freedom" brand of Progressivism.
1912 campaign: Wilson's brand of Progressivism favored entrepreneuriship, small businesses, less federal. regulation and no social welfare. Favored free competition and busting of large trusts to create smaller competitors.
Contrast was Roosevelt's "New Nationalism".
1916: Established 8-hour workday for RR workers plus overtime pay.
US representative who fought against powerful Trusts.
Federal Reserve Act
1913: Congress passed this huge banking reform act. Again, passage of the law was partly due to President Wilson's leadership and speaking skills in front of Congress and directly to the people of the US.
The New Federal Reserve Board, appointed by the President, oversaw a nationwide system of 12 regional reserve districts, each with its own reserve bank. Control of the banks was shared between private banks who owned the reserve banks and the Federal govt. which had much control.
The Federal Reserve Board was allowed to issue paper money or "Federal Reserve Notes". This allowed the practice of increasing the money supply if needed.
This act was a huge achievement and carried the US through times of financial crisis that were to come, including during WW1 from 1914-1918.
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist party candidate who ran in 1908 and 1912 elections, with increasing support.
Charles Evans Hughes
Republican candidate in 1916 election. Ran against Wilson and condemned the Democrats low Tariff, their assaults on Trusts and foreign policy "weakness" in dealing with Mexico and Germany.
Evans was a "cold" personality, former Supreme Court Justice.
Democrat Woodrow Wilson won a 2nd term in a very close vote.
8/1915 - This British passenger ship was sunk by Germany - 2 Americans were killed.
1916: Granted Philippines territorial status and promised independence as soon as a stable government was formed. That happened in 1946.
1912 election, he ran as a 3rd party Republican Progressive against Republican Taft and Democrat Wilson.
Shot in MKE during the campaign. Took 2 weeks off from campaigning.
Labor leader who rejoiced after Labor's win in the 1914 Clayton Act.
1917: US purchased Virgin Islands from Denmark.
Tampico + Vera Cruz
1914: Incident involving Mexico taking control of a small number of US soldiers.
In 1914, country that was neutral, but was invaded by Germany to get to France in order to defeat France quickly, so Germany could focus on its other enemies (e.g. Russia).
Summer of 1914 - WW1 started here when a Serbian killed the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary.