Calcium, Phosphorus, Trace Elements Flashcards Preview

Human Nutrition > Calcium, Phosphorus, Trace Elements > Flashcards

Flashcards in Calcium, Phosphorus, Trace Elements Deck (36):
1

major minerals

calcium

phosphorus

2

trace minerals

iron

fluoride

iodine

3

mineral functions

cofactor

body components

nerve impulses

muscle contraction

body growth

water balance

4

bioavailability

depends on how mineral is absorbed

5

mineral-mineral interaction

ionic charges compete for absorption

6

mineral-vitamin interaction

aids absorption

7

calcium location

99% teeth and bones

1% blood

8

calcium functions

circulates and helps regulate muscle contraction and nerve impulses

helps with blood clotting and hormone secretion

enzymes, neurotransmitters, cofactor for enzymes

9

calcium balance

regulators are hormones from thyroid and parathyroid

vitamin D

10

parathormone

raises blood calcium

11

calcitonin/thyrocalcitonin

lower blood calcium by inhibiting release from bone

12

vitamin D calcium function

raises blood calcium

13

if high blood calcium...

vit D and hormones promote deposit into bones

14

if low blood calcium...

intestines absorb

bones release

kidneys excrete less calcium

15

if low vit D or abnormal hormones

calcium rigor

calcium tetany

16

calcium rigor

hardness or stiffness of muscles caused by high blood calcium

17

calcium tetany

intermittent spasms of extremities due to nervous and muscular excitability

caused by low blood calcium

18

phosphorus facts

2nd most prevalent mineral in body

mostly in bones & teeth

in all body cells

part of DNA/RNA

needed for cell growth

phospholipid bilayer

19

phosphorus sources

animal protein

soda

20

excess phosphorus causes

calcium excretion

21

iron facts

in every cell

most found in hemoglobin and myoglobin

only 10-15% absorbed

22

hemoglobin

oxygen carrying protein of RBC

23

myoglobin

oxygen carrying protein of muscle cells

24

where is iron absorbed, stored, transported

absorbed in intestine

stored as ferritin, hemosiderin

transported as transferrin

25

iron deficiency

anemia, highest deficiency in world

26

anemia test

measures hemoglobin concentration of blood

27

iron-deficiency anemia disease / hypochromic anemia

small, pale red blood cells

RBC called microcytic

28

pica

craving for nonfood substances

geophagia means eating clay

29

heme vs. nonheme

heme comes from animal sources

non heme is plant sources

30

iron overload

toxicity from excess iron

hemochromatosis

hemosiderosis

31

hemochromatosis

deposits of iron containing pigment in tissues; tissue damage

hereditary defect in iron metabolism

32

hemosiderosis

deposition of iron storage protein hemosiderin in the liver and other tissues

33

what inhibits iron absorption

calcium

tannins: compounds in tea/coffee that bind iron

phytates: nonnutrient component of grains, legumes, and seeds

34

phytates

can bind minerals like iron, zinc, calcium, and magnesium in insoluble complexes in the intestine

body then excretes them unused

35

goiter

enalrgement of thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency, malfunction of the gland, or overconsumption of thyroid antagonist

if caused by iodine then considered a simple goiter

36

cretinism

iodine deficiency characterized by mental and physical retardation