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Human Nutrition > Fats > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fats Deck (59):
1

function of fat in the body

energy

insulation

protect organs

cell membranes

2

classes of lipid

triglycerides (fats & oils)

phospholipids

sterols

3

% dietary fats

95% from triglycerides

5% from phospholipids, sterols

4

% storage fat

99% is triglycerides

5

fats

lipids solid at room temp (70°F or 25°C)

6

oils

lipids liquid at room temp (70°F or 25°C)

7

functions of triglycerides

energy, satiety

insulation

FSV - fat soluble vitamins

flacor

8

satiety

length of the feeling of fullness

9

FSV

fat soluble vitamins

must eat fat in order to absorb these vitamins

10

rapid fat cell development until age __

10

11

hypertrophy

increase in size of existing fat cells

12

hyperplasia

development of # of fat cells

13

triglycerides are made of

glycerol w/ 3 fatty acids attached

14

glycerol

organic compound 3 carbons long

forms backbone of triglycerides and phospholipids

15

fatty acid

organic compound composed of a carbon chain with Hs attached and an acid group at one end

16

brain and CNS fuel source

only glucose

glycerol backbone turned into sugars

17

how are fatty acids different?

carbon chain length

degree of hydrogen saturation

18

most fatty acids have __ carbons

18

19

long chain fatty acid

12-24C

absorbed in lymph system

meat, fish, veggie oil

20

medium chain fatty acid

6-10C

rare in food source

absorbed through portal system

21

short chain fatty acid

less than 6C

butter, dairy

22

is saturated or unsaturated fat better in the diet?

unsaturated

23

saturated fatty acid

animal fat

a triglyceride that contains 3 saturated fatty acids

24

unsaturated fatty acid

fatty acid with one or more points of unsaturation where hydrogens are missing

25

monounsaturated fatty acid

has one point of unsaturation

oleic acid found in olive oil

26

polyunsaturated fatty acid

two or more points of unsaturation

linoleic acid has 2

linolenic acid has 3

27

linoleic and linolenic acids are ____

essential fatty acids

28

at room temp are unsaturated or saturated fats solid or liquid?

unsaturated are liquid (oil)

saturated are solid (lard, butter)

29

how does saturation effect stability?

saturated is more stable... longer shelf life

double bonds in unsaturated fats make it less stable

PUFA spoil easily due to many double bonds

30

rancid

fats that have deteriorated by oxidation

weird odor

31

oxidation

process of a substance combining with oxygen

32

antioxidants

compounds that protect others from oxidation by being oxidized themselves

33

how to protect fats from oxidation

airtight container in refrigerator

add antioxidants

saturate areas of unsaturation

34

hydrogenation

chemical process where hydrogens are added to mono or PUFAs

reduces double bonds (saturation, solid) making them more resistant to oxidation/rancid

produces trans-fatty acids

35

trans-fatty acid

fatty acids with unusual configuration around the double bond

36

essential fatty acids

body requires but cannot make in sufficient amounts to meet physiological needs

37

omega 6 fatty acid

PUFA w/ endmost double bond 6C back from end of chain

linoleic acid

animal protein, corn oil, safflower oil

38

omega 3 fatty acid

PUFA w/ endmost double bond 3C back from end of chain

linolenic

39

omega 6 to omega 3 ratio

3:1

40

linolenic acids include

EPA/DHA made from linolenic acid

found in fish oils

body can't make linolenic, but can make DHA/EPA from linolenic acid

41

functions of EPA/DHA

brain development

rods & cones (vision)

heart disease, hypertension (HTN), cancer (Ca), arthritis

42

phospholipids

similar to triglycerides but have choline and a phosphorous containing acid in place of one of the fatty acids

soluble in fat & water

43

lecithins

a type of phospholipid

44

choline

nonessential nutrient made in the body from an amino acid

45

emulsifier

substance that mixes with fat and water to permanently disperse the fat in the water

phospholipids take part in this process

46

emulsion vs. suspension

mayo is an emulsion

salad dressing is a suspension

47

bile

compound made in liver from cholesterol and stored in gallbladder

prepares fat for digestion

48

sterols (multi-ring structure)

cholesterol

vitamin D

sex hormones

in plants and animals

49

do plants have cholesterol?

no, only animals do

50

how much cholesterol per day?

300 mg / day

51

is cholesterol essential?

no, liver makes enough

52

types of fats effect on LDL/HDL

polyunsat. lowers/no effect

monounsat lowers/increases

saturated increases/no effect

trans fat increases/decreases

53

good vs. bad cholesterol

LDL - low density, bad (deposits in body)

HDL - high density, good (takes to gut)

54

lipoproteins

protein and lipid packages

transport lipid from liver through arteries to bloodstream

55

atherosclerosis

disease of accumulation of lipid material on the inner walls of arteries

56

cardiovascular disease

CVD-general term for all diseases of the heart and vessels

57

sterol esters

compounds in the sterol family derived from plants that have experimentally lowered blood cholesterol when eaten in place of other fats in a low-fat diet

58

sources of trans fat

hard margarines/shortenings

mayo

chips, cookies, biscuits, rolls

fast foods, french fries, fried chicken

59

how to cut fat

trim meat

reduce condiments like sour cream/butter

use olive oil/canola oil rich in monounsaturates

don't over-restrict