Carbohydrates, Fiber Flashcards Preview

Human Nutrition > Carbohydrates, Fiber > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carbohydrates, Fiber Deck (37):
1

macronutrient energy breakdown

55-60% carbs

30% fat

10-15% protein

2

main energy nutrients

carbs & fat

3

preferred energy source

carbs

4

are carbohydrate rich foods recommended?

yes

5

are carbs fattening?

no, excess calories are

6

simple carbohydrate (sugars)

monosaccharides-single sugar unit

disaccharides-pair of bonded sugars

7

complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)

starch

glycogen

most fibers

8

lignin

exception among fibers

polyphenol but not a polysaccharide

9

glycogen

storage form of carbs in animals and humans (liver, muscle tissue)

a polysaccharide composed of glucose

not a significant food source or considered a complex carb

10

starch

storage form of carbs in plants

a plant polysaccharide composed of glucose and digestible by humans

11

monosaccharides

glucose

fructose

galactose (found only as a part of lactose)

12

disaccharides

sucrose (glucose + fructose)

lactose (glucose + galactose)

maltose (glucose + glucose)

13

glucose

a monosaccharide

sugar common to all disaccharides and polysaccharides

aka. blood sugar or dextrose

14

fructose

a monosaccharide

aka. fruit sugar (fruits, honey, saps)

15

galactose

a monosaccharide

part of disaccharide lactose

provides 30-50% of milk's calories

16

homeostasis

maintenance of constant internal conditions by the body's control system

maintains chemistry, temp, bp

homeo = the same ------ stasis = staying

17

insulin

hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood glucose

promotes cellular glucose uptake for use or storage

18

glucagon

hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration

starts release of glucose from storage

19

sucrose

a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose

aka. table sugar, beet sugar, cane sugar

20

lactose

a disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose

aka. milk sugar

21

maltose

a disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules

found when carbs break down

aka. malt sugar

22

allergy vs. intolerance

allergy: immune response to proteins

intolerance: adverse reaction to carbohydrate

23

fiber

term denoting in plant foods the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, gums, and mucilages + nonpolysaccharide lignin

not attacked by human digestive enzymes

2 types

24

insoluble fiber

tough fibrous structures of fruits, vegetables, and grains

indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water

25

soluble fiber

indigestible food components that are dissolvable in water

impart gummy or gel-like characteristics to food (ex. pectin from fruit used to thicken jellies)

26

RDA of fiber

25g/day

avg. American diet has 11g/day

27

benefits of finer

protective vs. heart disease

28

what is removed during processing grains?

germ

bran

29

glycemic effect

measure of how much a food raises blood glucose concentration and starts an insulin response

compared to pure glucose

30

ketones

acidic, fat-related compounds formed from incomplete breakdown of fat when carb is not available

ketone bodies

31

protein-sparing effect

effect of carbs in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes

32

soluble fiber food sources

barley, fruit, legumes, oats, rye, seeds, veggies

33

insoluble fiber food sources

brown rice, fruit legumes, seeds, wheat bran, veggies, whole grains

34

soluble fiber health effects

lower blood cholesterol, slow glucose absorption

slow movement of food through digestive tract

holds moisture in stool to soften

35

insoluble fiber health effects

soften stool, regulate bowel movements

speed transit of material through sm. intestine

reduce colon cancer, hemorrhoids, diverticulosis, appendicitis

36

properties of soluble fiber

gums, mucilages, pectin, psyllium, some hemicellulose

psyllium is easily dissolved in water and commercially available

37

properties of insoluble fiber

cellulose, lignin, some hemicellulose