Fat-Soluble Charts Flashcards Preview

Human Nutrition > Fat-Soluble Charts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fat-Soluble Charts Deck (25):
1

beta-carotene

vitamin A precursor made by plants and stored in human fat

orange pigment

breaks into two molecules of vitamin A

2

Vitamin A function, deficiency, sources

function: maintains cornea, light detection in retina, protein synthesis & cell differentiation, antioxidant

deficiency: hypovitaminosis A; impaired cell differentiation and maturation, epithelial cells flatten and ketatinize, progressive blindness (xeropthalmia), infections, dry salivary glands, less mucous in GI tract

sources: milk, cheese, fortified cereals, fruits, veggies

3

Vitamin A toxicity

RBC breakage, nosebleeds, headache, impaired growth, digestive system disturbance, absence of menstruation, dry skin, hair loss

4

vitamin A and cornea/retina

maintains cornea: hard transparent membrane covering outside of the eye

retina: layer of lightsensitive nerve cells in back of the eye; rods and cones

5

night blindness

slow recovery of vision after exposure to flashes of light at night; early symptom of vitamin A deficiency

6

xerosis

drying of the cornea; early symptom of xeropthalmia

7

keratomalacia

total blindness; last and most severe stage of xeropthalmia

8

follicular hyperkeratosis

accumulation of hard keratin around hair follicles

9

carotenemia

yellowing of skin caused by excess carotene in the blood

mucous membranes lining eyelids do not turn yellow like in jaundice

teratogenic

10

vitamin D facts

more like a hormone

not essential if you get enough sun (20 min on face/forearms)

precursor made from cholesterol in liver (UV rays convert to 2nd precursor)

kidney/liver disease = deficiency

11

vitamin D function, deficiency, sources

function: mineralization of bones

deficiency: rickets/osteromalacia; decreased blood calcium/phosphorus, abnormal growth, soft bones, misshapen bones, muscle spasm

sources: sunlight, fortified milk, butter, eggs, cereal, sardines

12

vitamin D toxicity

raised blood calcium/phosphorus, kidney stones, thirst, headache, irritability

13

rickets

vitamin D deficiency disease in children

14

osteomalacia

bone disease characterized by soft bones

bending of the spine and bowing of the legs

adults

15

osteoporosis

porous bones, reduced density of bone, adult bone loss

16

vitamin E function, deficiency, sources

function: antioxidant, stabilize cell membranes

deficiency: muscular dystrophy, RBC hemolysis, fibrocystic breast disease, intermittent claudication

sources: PUFA, leafy greens, wheat germ, nuts, seeds

17

muscular dystrophy

hereditary: muscles gradually weaken, worst effect on lungs

vitamin E deficiency: gradual paralysis of muscles

18

erythrocyte hemolysis

bursting of RBC due to lack of vitamin E

19

fibrocystic breast disease

harmless condition where lumps form in the breasts

caffeine abstinence helps or increased vitamin E

20

intermittent claudication

severe calf pain caused by inadequate blood supply

occurs when walking, stops when resting

21

vitamin K facts

we synthesize 50%

essential for activating 7 blood clotting proteins (prothrombin)

22

vitamin K function, deficiency, sources

function: synthesis of blood-clotting proteins and a protein that binds calcium in bones

deficiency: hemorrhagic disease

sources: leafy greens, milk, cabbage, synthesize in gut

23

vitamin K toxicity

interferes with anti-clotting medications

jaundice, RBC hemolysis, brain damage

24

when does vitamin K deficiency occur?

fat malabsorption or no bile

after antibiotics kill gut bacteria

25

ACE

vitamins that are antioxidants