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Human Nutrition > Pregnancy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pregnancy Deck (39):
1

low birthweight

less than 5.5 lbs indicates poor health in newborn and mother during pregnancy

2 types

premature (appropriate for gestational age)

small for gestational age

2

normal birthweight for full-term baby

6.5-8.5 lb

3

appropriate for gestational age

aka AGA

premature babies whose weight is appropriate

4

small for gestational age

SGA

suffered growth in uterus

may or may not have been born early

5

full-term pregnancy length

10 months

6

placenta

organ that develops in uterus where mom's blood and fetal blood circulates

7

amniotic sac

"bag of waters" in uterus where fetus floats

8

umbilical cord

fetus' veins and arteries reach placenta through the cord

how fetus is nourished, gets oxygen, and excretes waste

9

fetus

developing infant from 8 weeks after conception until birth

10

critical period

finite period during development in which certain events occur that have irreversible effects on later development

period of rapid cell division

11

vitamin required for rapid cell proliferation

folate

12

energy RDA during trimester 2 & 3

+300 kcal/day

13

protein RDA during pregnancy

+10 g/day

14

how does pregnancy affect bowels?

slows them, causing constipation

15

recommended weight gains for pregnancy

if you have underweight BMI: 28-40 lbs

normal BMI: 25-35 lbs

overweight BMI: 15-25

obese class 1 BMI: 13 lbs minimum

16

gestational diabetes

abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy

17

sugary drink test

16-20 weeks

glucose tolerance test

18

preeclampsia

condition characterized by hypertension, fluid retention, and protein in the urine

19

eclampsia

sever stage of preeclampsia in which convulsions occur

20

warning signs of preeclampsia

HTN, protein in urine, upper abdominal pain, severe headache, swelling (of face), dizziness, blurred vision, sudden weight gain (1lb / day)

21

to alleviate nausea of pregnancy

get up slowly

eat dry toast or crackers before getting out of bed

small meals

chew gum / suck hard candy

don't drink citrus juice, water, milk, coffee, or tea

take prenatal vitamin and iron supplements on a full stomach

22

to relieve heartburn

small meals

drink fluid between meals

no spicy / greasy foods

sit up while eating

wait an hour after eating before laying down

wait 2 hrs after eating before exercise

23

lactation

production and secretion of breast milk

24

1st 4 months of newborn ... weight?

should double

25

1st year of life of newborn... weight?

should triple

26

babies are born with __ supply of iron

6 months

27

jaundice in baby

if breastfed it's common

28

baby may lose __% of birthweight

10

29

alpha lactalbumin

chief protein in human breast milk

casein is chief protein in cow's milk

30

lactoferrin

a factor in breast milk that binds iron and keeps it from supporting the growth of the infant's intestinal bacteria

31

colostrum

milk like secretion rich in protective factors

present during first day after delivery before actual milk appears

32

bifidus factors

found in colostrum and breast milk that favor the growth of friendly bacterium lactobacillus bifidus in intestines

these bacteria prevent other less desirable ones from flourishing

33

liquid formula preparation

mix with equal part of water

moderately expensive

34

powered formula preparation

read label

cheapest

35

ready-to-feed formula

pour directly into clean bottles

most expensive

36

1st solid food to feed baby?

iron fortified rice cereal

37

bottle at night?

no, tooth decay

38

rice cereal in bottle?

no, ear infections

39

autoimmune disease if introduce new foods too quickly?

yes...?