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THERAPEUTICS III TEST 4 > cancer 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in cancer 1 Deck (17):
1

what are 3 characteristics of cancer and there definitions?

1. clonality - all tumors are clones from a genetically damaged cell
2. autonomy - cancer cells are independent from normal cellular controls
3. anaplasia - loss of differentiation and organization (without form)

2

what are the characteristics a benign tumor

1. grow slowly
2. well defined capsule
3. noninvasive
4. differentiated
5. low mitotic index
6. do not metastasize

3

what are the characteristics a malignant tumor

1. grow rapidly
2. not encapsulated
3. invasive
4. poorly differentiated
5. high mitotic index
6. metastasize

4

what are the stages of carcinogenesis

1. initiation
2. promotion
3. conversion
4. conversion/transformation
5. progression

5

what is initiation phase of carcinogenesis

exposure of normal cells to carinogenic substance leads to genetic damage that results in IRREVERSIBLE cellular mutations

6

what is the only stage of carcinogenesis that is reversible

promotion

7

what is the promotion phase of carcinogenesis

altered environment that favors growth of mutated cells

8

at what stage of carcinogenesis does a mutated cell become cancerous

conversion/ transformation

9

at what stage of carcinogenesis does a mutated cell become cancerous

conversion/ transformation

10

list the classes of initiators and promoters of cancer

1. chemical agents
2. infectious agents
3. environmental agents
4. lifestyle
5. genetics

11

what are the 6 hallmarks of carcinogenesis

1. self sufficiency in growth signals
2. Insensitivity to negative signals
3. Evasion of apoptosis
4. Limitless proliferative capacity
5. sustained angiogenesis
6. Tumor Invasion and metastasis

12

what cells inhibit inappropriate cell growth and proliferation

Tumor Suppressor Genes (TSG)

13

what is apoptosis

programmed cell death

14

what is the term for cell aging

senescence

15

what is the term for growth of new vessels

angiogenesis

16

what is metastatis

spread of cancer form a primary site to a distant site

17

which hallmark of carcinogenesis leads to increased amounts of normal or abnormal cells

self sufficiency of growth signals