Flashcards in Cancer Care Deck (81)
Malignant Cancer Cells
-Have abnormal regulation of growth
-Continue to grow even at the expense of their host
-Grow by invasion
-Travel via lymph nodes and blood
Benign Cancer Cells
-Grow by expansion
-Slow or may halt
What is are the differences b/t Malignant and Cancer cells?
-Rate of growth
-Ability to metastasize/spread
-Destruction of tissue
-Ability to cause death
The capacity of a tumor to invade and spread from their original site to other organs in the body
What are the 2 most common mechanisms of metastasis?
lymphatic channels or blood vessels
What are the most common sites of metastasis?
bones, lungs, liver, and CNS
process by which a new blood supply is formed, creating an interface b/t the tumor and the vascular surface of the host
Tumor emboli enter the lymph channels by way of the interstitial fluid, which communicates w/ lymphatic circulation
-penetrate by infiltration
What happens after the tumor emboli enter lymphatic circulation?
They lodge in lymph nodes or pass b/t the lymphatic and venous circulation
Dissemination of malignant cells via the blood stream
What happens when malignant cells travel through the blood stream?
They attach to endothelium and attract fibrin and platelets to seal themselves from the immune system
-then enzymes are secreted that destroy surrounding body tissues allowing implantation
What viruses and bacteria are linked to cancer?
-Hep C = hepatocellular carcinoma
-Helicobacter pylori = gastric ulcers
-HPV = genital region, upper respiratory tract, or skin
Chemical agents and Cancer
-1/3 cancer deaths are from tobacco use
-4% daily alcohol consumption
-30-40% oral cancers and 20-50% esophageal cancers are from daily alcohol consumption
-Chemicals in workplace = carcinogens/co-carcinogens
What are the most important modifiable determinants of cancer risk?
Obesity, diet, and levels of physical activity
What dietary substances appear to increase the risk of cancers?
fats, alcohol, salt-cured/smoked meats, and nitrate containing foods
Primary Prevention of Cancers
Focus on preventing or delating the onset of cancer
Focuses on EARLY detection w/ the goal of identifying cancer in early stages before symptoms develop
Management of the disease and the prevention of progression to later stages
What is the process to diagnose cancer?
-Determine presence of tumor and its extent
-Identify possible spread
-Evaluate function of involved/uninvolved body system/organs
-Obtain tissues and cells for analysis
T = extent of primary tumor
N = Lymph node involvement
M = metastasis
-Determines the size of the tumor and extent of the disease
Classifying tumor cells
-tumor assigned numeric value from I-IV
What does a grade 1 tumor mean?
Well differentiated, closely resemble the tissue of origin in structure and function
What does a grade 4 tumor mean?
Poorly differentiated as they do NOT clearly resemble the tissue of origin in structure or function
What are the 3 Management Goals?
-Cure- completely eradicate
-Control-prolong survival/prevent progression
-Palliation-relief of symptoms
What is the most important factor in determining eligibility for treatments?
May be the primary method of treatment or it may be prophylactic, palliative, reconstructive, or diagnostic
BIOPSY must be performed to obtain a tissue sample for analysis of cells suspected to be malignant
What are the 2 goals of surgery?
-Remove the entire tumor
-Remove as much as possible and any involved surrounding tissue
What are the 2 types of surgical approaches?
Local excision or Wide/radical excision