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Flashcards in Cancer Care Deck (81)
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1

Malignant Cancer Cells

-Have abnormal regulation of growth
-Continue to grow even at the expense of their host
-Grow by invasion
-Travel via lymph nodes and blood

2

Benign Cancer Cells

-Grow by expansion
-Slow or may halt

3

What is are the differences b/t Malignant and Cancer cells?

-Rate of growth
-Ability to metastasize/spread
-Destruction of tissue
-Ability to cause death

4

Metastasis

The capacity of a tumor to invade and spread from their original site to other organs in the body

5

What are the 2 most common mechanisms of metastasis?

lymphatic channels or blood vessels

6

What are the most common sites of metastasis?

bones, lungs, liver, and CNS

7

Angiogenesis

process by which a new blood supply is formed, creating an interface b/t the tumor and the vascular surface of the host

8

Lymphatic Spread

Tumor emboli enter the lymph channels by way of the interstitial fluid, which communicates w/ lymphatic circulation
-penetrate by infiltration

9

What happens after the tumor emboli enter lymphatic circulation?

They lodge in lymph nodes or pass b/t the lymphatic and venous circulation

10

Hematogenous Spread

Dissemination of malignant cells via the blood stream

11

What happens when malignant cells travel through the blood stream?

They attach to endothelium and attract fibrin and platelets to seal themselves from the immune system
-then enzymes are secreted that destroy surrounding body tissues allowing implantation

12

What viruses and bacteria are linked to cancer?

-Hep C = hepatocellular carcinoma
-Helicobacter pylori = gastric ulcers
-HPV = genital region, upper respiratory tract, or skin

13

Chemical agents and Cancer

-1/3 cancer deaths are from tobacco use
-4% daily alcohol consumption
-30-40% oral cancers and 20-50% esophageal cancers are from daily alcohol consumption
-Chemicals in workplace = carcinogens/co-carcinogens

14

What are the most important modifiable determinants of cancer risk?

Obesity, diet, and levels of physical activity

15

What dietary substances appear to increase the risk of cancers?

fats, alcohol, salt-cured/smoked meats, and nitrate containing foods

16

Primary Prevention of Cancers

Focus on preventing or delating the onset of cancer

17

Secondary Prevention

Focuses on EARLY detection w/ the goal of identifying cancer in early stages before symptoms develop

18

Tertiary Prevention

Management of the disease and the prevention of progression to later stages

19

What is the process to diagnose cancer?

-Determine presence of tumor and its extent
-Identify possible spread
-Evaluate function of involved/uninvolved body system/organs
-Obtain tissues and cells for analysis

20

TNM System

T = extent of primary tumor
N = Lymph node involvement
M = metastasis
-Determines the size of the tumor and extent of the disease

21

Tumor Grading

Classifying tumor cells
-tumor assigned numeric value from I-IV

22

What does a grade 1 tumor mean?

Well differentiated, closely resemble the tissue of origin in structure and function

23

What does a grade 4 tumor mean?

Poorly differentiated as they do NOT clearly resemble the tissue of origin in structure or function

24

What are the 3 Management Goals?

-Cure- completely eradicate
-Control-prolong survival/prevent progression
-Palliation-relief of symptoms

25

What is the most important factor in determining eligibility for treatments?

Performance Status

26

Surgery

May be the primary method of treatment or it may be prophylactic, palliative, reconstructive, or diagnostic

27

Diagnostic Surgery

BIOPSY must be performed to obtain a tissue sample for analysis of cells suspected to be malignant

28

What are the 2 goals of surgery?

-Remove the entire tumor
-Remove as much as possible and any involved surrounding tissue

29

What are the 2 types of surgical approaches?

Local excision or Wide/radical excision

30

Local Excision

removal of the mass and a small margin of normal tissue that is easily accessible