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Flashcards in Urinary Disorders Deck (95)
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1

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

inflammation of the sterile urinary tract caused by the introduction of bacteria most commonly through the urethra

2

Lower UTI's

Cystitis, Prostatitis, Urethritis

3

Upper UTI's

Pyelonephritis, Ureteritis, Renal Abscess

4

Is a lower or upper UTI more common?

lower

5

What is an uncomplicated UTI?

-involves the normal urinary tract
-Community acquired
-Healthy, non-pregnant young women

6

What is a complicated UTI?

Associated with a structural/functional abnormality of the urinary tract
-Hospital Acquired
-Pregnancy, men, catheters, diabetes, stones

7

Why are UTI's more common in women than men?

Females have a shorter urethra and there is a shorter distance b/t urethra and vagina/rectum

8

When does the risk for UTI's in males increase?

increases with age secondary to enlarging of the prostate

9

What are the major causes of UTI's?

-Honeymoon cystitis
-Pregnancy
-Diabetes
-Poor hygiene
-Deficiency of estrogen
-Obstructions (stones)
-Condition leading to incomplete bladder emptying

10

How does Honeymoon cystitis cause a UTI?

-secondary to sexual activity
-introduces bacteria from the vagina to the urethra

11

How does pregnancy cause a UTI?

As the uterus enlarges it can lead to incomplete bladder emptying and urine in the bladder acts as a reservoir

12

How can diabetes cause a UTI?

-nerve damage to bladder
-Increased sugar in the urine
-Decreased immunity

13

Urethrovesical Reflux

-urine goes down into the urethra and back into the bladder
-coughing, sneezing, squatting, voiding abruptly interrupted

14

What are two other causes of UTI's?

Urethrovesical and Ureterovesical Reflux

15

Ureterovesical Reflux

urine goes up into the ureters and back into the bladder
-Structural abnormalities

16

S/S of Cystitis (Lower UTI)

-Dysuria -hematuria
-Frequency -Suprapubic pain
-Burning with urination
-Nocturia
-Urgency
-Cloudy/Foul smelling

17

S/S of Acute Pyelonephritis (Upper UTI)

-Fever
-Nausea/Vomiting
-Flank pain
-Bacteriuria
-Pyuria
-Headache
-Malaise

18

Where would the patient experience flank/costovertebral pain?

B/t the 12th rib and costovertebral angle
*On your back where your kidneys sit

19

How would a UTI be diagnosed?

-Urinalysis
-Urine culture w/ Sensitivity

20

What would indicate a UTI after a Urinalysis?

-Bloody/cloudy urine
-WBC's and RBC's >5
-Positive for Nitrites and Bacteria

21

What would indicate a UTI after a Urine Culture?

>100,000 bacteria

22

What tests are used specifically used for an Upper UTI (pyelonephritis)?

-CT scan
-Laboratory (BUN and Creatinine)
-Diagnostic (IV pyelogram)

23

What two antibiotics are commonly used for an UNcomplicated UTI and for how long?

Cipro or Levaquin
-3 day course

24

What antibiotics are commonly used for a COMPLICATED UTI and how long?

IV: Ancef, Rocephin, Maxipime, Cipro
Oral: Cipro, Keflex
-7-10 day course

25

What are additional treatments used for a UTI?

-Antiemetics for N/V
-Bladder Analgesics

26

What are some precautions for bladder analgesics?

-Numbs bladder so you can NOT use it for more than 3-4 days
-Can mask worsening symptoms
-turns urine orange

27

What else can be done for a UTI?

-Increase fluid intake (8-10 8 oz glasses of water)
-High rate IV fluid
-Cranberry juice/supplements
-Do NOT drink coffee, alcohol, aspartame
Do NOT smoke

28

What should you not take Cranberry juice/ supplements with?

Anticoagulants

29

When would Pyelonephritis require hospitalization?

-Symptomatic and complicated
-Unable to tolerate oral meds/fluids
-Uncontrollable fever
-Sever uncontrollable pain

30

What are some complications a patient may have if UTI is not treated/ treated effectively?

-End stage kidney disease
-Kidney Failure
-Sepsis