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Flashcards in Vascular Disorders/ Peripheral Circulation Deck (81)
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1

Name the 3 classifications of Vascular System disorders

Arterial, venous, and lymphatic

2

Arterial Disorders

Arteries may become DAMAGED of OBSTRUCTED as a result of atherosclerotic plaque, thromboemboli, chemical/mechanical trauma, infections, or congenital malformations

3

Sudden Arterial Disorders

result in irreversible tissue ischemia

4

Gradual Arterial Disease

less risk of tissue death due to collateral circulation, but overtime ischemia and tissue death may occur

5

Collateral Circulation

rerouting of blood vessels

6

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)

-any disease process that affects the arteries
-results in ischemia
-legs most affected
-increased mortality, MI, and cerebrovascular disease
-patients are initially asymptomatic

7

PAD Signs and Symptoms

hair loss, dry skin, skeletal muscle atrophy, skin pallor, diminished/absent pulses, cool extremities, paresthesia, numbness, tingling, edema, ulcers

8

PAD Pathophysiology

as the lumen narrows and blood flow decreases, ischemia occurs, progressing to infarction in the distal tissues

9

PAD Modifiable Risk Factors

diet, obesity, smoking, stress, lack of exercise

10

Non-modifiable Risk Factors

age, race, diseases such as hypertension and diabetes

Other:hyperhomocysteinema

11

PAD Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

chronic ischemic pain at rest, nonhealing ulcers, or gangrene
-infection can progress to amputation

12

Acute Limb Ischemia (ALI)

sudden decrease in limb perfusion either thrombosis or embolism that may threaten limb viability

13

Signs and symptoms of ALI
(6 P's)

1. Pain (severe stabbing, shooting, or burning)
2. Pallor
3. Pulselessness
4. Poikilothermia (cool temperature to palpation)
5.Paresthesia (numbness, tingling)
6. Paralysis

14

What peripheral pulses should an RN check for PAD?

popliteal artery, dorsalis pedis artery, and posterior tibial artery

15

What diagnostics tests may be used for PAD?

doppler ultrasound flow studies, CTA, MRA, Angiography

16

Doppler Ultrasound Flow Studies

Evaluates arterial signals, BP measurement in the limbs, asses vessel size, presence of thrombus, and valve function

17

Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA)

Demonstrates cross sectional image of soft tissues
Diagnosis abdominal aneurysms, graft infections, occlusions, and hemorrhage

18

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

Detection of changes, aneurysm, DVT
**useful in poor kidney function or contrast agent allergy

19

Angiography

**Gold Standard**
conformation of occlusive arterial disease when considering interventions
- watch for iodine allergies

20

What are the goals for PAD?

-reduce the risk of life threatening complications of atherosclerosis
-improve walking distance
-salvage the limb

21

Raynaud's Disease/ Phenomenon

vasospasm that occurs with cold or stress
-unknown cause
-Women 16-40+ years
-Associated with immunologic disorders, scleroderma, and SLE

22

Signs and Symptoms of Raynaud's Disease

-skin becomes cyanotic due to vasospasm, then vasodilation causes redness
-Numbness, tingling, and burning pain
-Fingers and toes may be cool during attacks and may perspire excessively

23

What should patients do for Raynaud's Disease?

-avoid stimuli that causes vasoconstriction
-dress warmly, wear gloves or mittens
-avoid tobacco
-educate on the use of calcium-channel blockers

24

Aneurysm

a localized outpouching, sac, or dilation formed at a weak point in the arterial wall

25

Saccular Aneurysm

projects from one side of the vessel only

26

Fusiform Aneurysm

the entire arterial segment becomes dilated

27

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

-Unknown cause, but atherosclerosis contributes
-Most are asymptomatic and found on routine exam
-can rupture leading to hemorrhage and death

28

Aneurysm Patho

The degradation of the medial elastin fibers and collagen leads to weakening and dilation of the aorta and the development of the aneurysm

29

At what rate does an aneurysm grow?

0.3-0.4 cm/ year

30

Risk Factors for Aneurysm

Age (>50)
Male
Tobacco use
Family history
hypertension
Atherosclerotic disease